Trinity and Beyond (1995) Movie Script

Trinity, instead of exploding
first nuclear bomb in the world
July 16, 1945.
Alamogordo, New Mexico, USA,
May 1945
May, 1945.
The hot desert of New Mexico
seems far from the ravages of
the war in Europe.
100 tons of dynamite.
A test...
to measure and calibrate
the power of a nuclear weapon ever tested.
Two months later...
Man releases the destructive power
a demon imprisoned
into the very fabric of matter,
and plunge the world
in the atomic age.
Over the next 20 years,
power tests
nuclear bombs
will maintain the fascination of the world
for these events surrounded by secrecy.
VENTS launched
seven years earlier.
Hitler invaded Austria!
March 13, 1938.
Hitler invaded Austria.
3rd Reich begins to deploy
its military power.
Later that year,
German scientists
discover fission
of the uranium nucleus
What brings the 3rd Reich
a step
the discovery of the secret
of the atomic bomb.
Fear of German research
stimulates activities to
United States and England.
The fear that German scientists
could produce weapons
high destructive power.
In autumn 1939,
Dr. Albert Einstein
wrote his famous letter
President Roosevelt,
explaining the urgency of working
in the fission of uranium.
Roosevelt, a man of action,
responded quickly,
and creates an advisory committee
of uranium.
German forces invaded Poland
dragging European nations
in the second world war.
A new branch of the Corps of Engineers
was created to oversee the work
on military use of uranium.
Major General L.R. Growe,
the man in charge of the Pentagon,
was appointed head
December 2, 1942, the first reactor
Autonomous chain reaction
has been successfully exploited by Enrico Fermi.
The success of Fermi generates
great efforts
the government
and the private sector,
leading to the creation of huge factories,
for the separation of uranium
in the town of Oakridge, Tennessee,
and for the production of plutonium
Hanford, Washington
on the banks
Columbia River.
Through this effort was forged great
the necessary hardware
to create an atomic bomb.
The first atomic bomb
was built at Los Alamos,
a secret laboratory
New Mexico
When Dr. Oppenheimer J.R.
arrived to take command
he surrounded himself with an incredible range
stars of the scientific world.
Los Alamos was born on design
the bomb and resolution
many theoretical problems.
Many questions remain unanswered, however.
What are the secrets of this new
form of power and destruction?
Knowledge and Information
all aspects of this new weapon
are essential,
and can not be discovered that
by further testing.
I had a good friend, a Hungarian
10 years older than me, Leo Szilard.
He had a very independent-minded
and a large capacity
foreshadow what would happen.
He saw the years ahead
the importance that the explosives
Nuclear would take.
He was a friend of mine, and I helped him.
For example, I took it to
an important interview with Einstein
where Einstein wrote this
famous letter to Roosevelt.
The letter that started it all.
I myself was interested in
Theoretical Physics
atoms, molecular vibrations,
and knowledge of molarity.
I did not want to do.
But then...
Hitler had not only swallowed
half of Poland,
he had also invaded the West.
Two days later, there was
an invitation to a Pan-American Congress
in which Roosevelt, that I had never
seen before, was to speak.
He made a memorable speech,
about how the world is
really in danger because of Hitler.
He said in part, to the point
highlight of the speech:
"You scientists, will be blamed
for the arms to be used"
but I tell you,
"if you do not work on these weapons,
world freedom will be lost."
You know, I felt
Roosevelt spoke to me.
I was there when
The letter was signed
one that stirred up the interest
in nuclear power
He was convinced that
was nuclear
Of the 2,000 scientists who were there,
I felt it spoke to me.
Of course it was not that...
But for this speech
twenty minutes
I made my decision.
I continued to prefer
work in science 'pure',
but this must be done.
Since this must be done
and that I could contribute,
I did,
and I have never regretted
to have done.
The uranium bomb,
called "Little Boy"
had a simple design.
And scientists were convinced
fonctionnerai it without testing.
"Fat Man", or the implosion bomb,
was a more efficient design
which used plutonium
rather than uranium.
In the center of the bomb,
there was a detonator
surrounded by a sphere of plutonium.
This sphere was encapsulated
in a series of lenses highly
explosive placed symmetrically,
creating an implosion
compressing the sphere of plutonium
on itself until it
reaches critical mass.
The explosion brought immediately
temperature to 10 million degrees,
releasing a force of one half
million pounds of pressure
vaporizing the tower and all
desert living within 800m.
The intensity of the light
was sufficient
to cause temporary blindness
an observer at 16 km distance.
With a score of 200 times more potent
the test with 100 tons of TNT,
the fireball created a crater
about 800 m in diameter.
And melted the desert sand
green crystals in which
always contain traces of radioactivity
50 years later.
May 8, 1945,
Germany surrendered to Allied forces,
This puts an end to the war in Europe.
intelligence sources as
command of General Groves concluded
that Germany had not developed
the atomic bomb.
However, the war continued
in the Pacific...
Pearl Harbor forced the entry
the United States at war.
For three years, gaining ground
after each small victory,
our forces conducted
against the Empire
the Rising Sun.
Gradually, island by island,
mile after mile,
and raids with more pressing,
combined Allied forces land,
sea and air, we
reached the border of the empire.
forcing them to retreat
until the end of 1945,
only the ramparts of the islands
Japanese remain to be destroyed.
the coming campaign
most important of all:
the invasion of Japanese territory,
and face a desperate struggle.
fanatical enemy will not abandon
not until the last fighter
has not been removed from its
trench and killed.
As experience has shown
the Tinian - South Pacific
has 2500 Km of Japan
Operating Base for
the mission of the 509th Squadron
to launch the first bombs
on Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic
Japan surrenders
The uranium bomb,
called "Little Boy"
exploded over Hiroshima
at an altitude of 250 meters.
The altitude to achieve
maximum blast.
Three days later,
the implosion bomb "Fat Man"
exploded over Nagasaki.
In Hiroshima 70,000 people
were killed or missing.
On its 90,000 buildings,
more than 60,000 were demolished.
The implosion bomb dropped on
Nagasaki took the lives of 42,000 people,
and injured 40,000 others.
It destroyed 39% of
buildings in the city.
With a yield of 20 kilotons,
similar to that of Trinity,
this weapon will be considered
as a normal bomb,
and serve as a model for
future nuclear weapons.
- 11 months later -
But our main objectives
are the warships.
We try to first learn
What types of ships, training
tactical and strategic needs
of our own naval forces
who survive best
an attack with nuclear weapons
in case we need to cope.
11 months after the bombing
Hiroshima and Nagasaki,
the operation was conducted Crossroads
on Bikini Atoll
4000km to the west of Hawaii.
The aim of the operation
was to test the effects of weapons
nuclear using two devices
similar in design to those
Trinity and Nagasaki.
Their code names:
"Able" and "Baker".
Able to be launched
from a B-29,
while Baker was detonated
to 30 m below the water surface.
The fleet consisted of target
185 Japanese ships
German and American.
From small amphibious craft
to battleships and aircraft carriers.
The bomb will not start a
chain reaction in water,
converting it all to gas
and to ensure that all vessels,
of all the oceans, fall to the bottom.
It will not explode
the bottom of the ocean
and bring down all the water
a hole in
It will not destroy gravity.
I am not an "Atomic Playboy"
as one of my critics called me,
that these bombs would explode
to satisfy my personal whim.
Animals, plants, and similar agents
biological warfare were assembled
to study the effects of heat,
blast and radiation.
The bomb missed its target
of almost 750 meters
The explosion sent five ships,
including two destroyers,
the lake bottom of Bikini.
All vessels within 800m
were severely damaged.
But the damage was
far from those caused
by the underwater explosion
that followed, called Baker.
5, 4, 3, 2, 1,
Baker was an underwater explosion
Navy of the same device,
and caused much more damage
the fleet to 70 vessels.
For example, on the USS Saratoga
the shockwave submarine tore
the bottom of the hull of the boat.
Saratoga sank still lies
at the bottom of the sea from Bikini.
I flew several times
the site and on a clear,
if the water is calm,
you can still see the Saratoga.
The area around
the explosion of Baker
had become highly radioactive,
and could not be
approached for some time.
This effect was not expected,
and led to the decision
President Truman
to cancel a third nuclear test
deep called "Charlie."
Here the city of Los Alamos,
to 1500 meters.
The Atomic City .
is a modern city
created by United States
as a research center
and development of nuclear weapons.
We are talking about a region
remote and primitive,
men must leave their homes
laboratories and their States,
for a term which may
reach for months.
Since 1943, when
Los Alamos was founded,
these men left
the continental limits of the United States
to test weapons
they have created.
Two years after
Operation Crossroads,
President Truman authorized
to conduct the operation Sandstone.
While the goal of Crossroads
was to test the effect
nuclear weapons,
Sandstone objective was to test
design new weapons.
Plans for these weapons were
initiated several years earlier
when researchers from Trinity
have developed other models
experimental atomic weapons,
but were not sure of their success.
A joint working group was created
to go back into the peaceful,
and obtain the island of Enewetak,
300 km west of Bikini,
Crossroads which had taken place.
In early November, the first
Construction crews arrived
to remove all the vegetation of the island,
clean the area and dump
tonnes of asphalt for roads.
In six months, the team built
temporary housing
for many scientists and military
necessary for the operation Sandstone.
Perched on steel towers
60 meters high,
the three devices used to Sandstone
employed a new technology
to double the explosive power
of the bomb
using the same amount of
plutonium spent in Nagasaki.
This technology meets the requirements
Department of Defense
create more effective bombs
and increase the capacity of
store nuclear weapons.
Radio controlled tanks,
guided by helicopter
recovered samples
fission near "ground zero",
for measuring the intensity of
neutrons and gamma rays.
Radiochemical analysis
pulverized coral sand
revealed the secrets
the nuclear reaction,
and helped to determine the effectiveness of
bombs of new design.
The results of Sandstone affectrent
the design of future nuclear weapons,
making the components 'Mark-3', used
for the production of Fat Man, obsolete.
Designs 'Mark-4' and 'Mark-5'
led to better performance and a
lighter weight for nuclear weapons.
The division of the laboratory Z
Los Alamos National
moved to the base has Sand,
located in Albuquerque, New Mexico,
near Kirtland Air Force Base.
The main objective of the Sandia Base
was the study and production of nuclear weapons
"Mobile" designed at Los Alamos.
in October 1949,
Western Electric contracted with
The Committee on Atomic Energy,
agreement "no taxes, no profit"
to form the Sandia Corporation
who took control
the basis of Los Alamos.
Sandia has led to techniques
production lines
and mass production
nuclear weapons,
to increase the supply of arms
tactical and strategic nation.
After returning from Bikini,
in public statements,
interviews and published articles,
Admiral Blandey
made important recommendations
on atomic bombs.
It is essential that no other nation
takes the ascendancy over the United States
in the development, manufacture and
the use of tactical nuclear weapons.
On 29 August 1949, the Russians did
exploded their first atomic bomb.
This event,
which took place five years earlier
than anyone in the west
have been expected,
was largely responsible
a man, Klaus Fuchs.
Fuchs, a physicist at Los Alamos,
spent blueprints
the design of
Trinity to the Russians.
With the emergence of the USSR
as a nuclear rival in 1949,
the United States were convinced
have good reasons
increase their programs
nuclear testing.
It was very expensive and it
involved a lot of logistics
perform operations
in the Pacific.
In this and in January 1951, the United States
inaugurated the test area of?? Nevada,
we now call
"The Nevada Test Site"
which is located approximately 100 km
north of Las Vegas.
Before you can test the
Weapons of Operation Greenhouse,
the operation was performed Ranger
during which five
new types of nuclear weapons
were launched on
new test area.
First explosion to United States
from Trinity.
With the confidence of having
The new weapons in hand,
Operation Greenhouse was
conducted in Spring 1951.
4 launches took place
Greenhouse during the operation.
One of them, "Easy"
a structural test was controlled
by the Ministry of Defence.
A nuclear device of 47
kilotonnes was placed on a tower,
which blew many buildings,
that had been built
to test the survivability
in a nuclear environment.
Test structural effects.
The fourth test of the operation
Greenhouse testing was "Item".
A trial approximately 45.5 kilotonnes
in which tritium was burned
in the center of the nuclear explosion.
And this process, placing the center of tritium
of nuclear weapons is called "Boosting".
We increased the yield
from 20 to 45.5 kilotonnes,
more than double,
through this process.
A very important feature
to increase the storage capacity
nuclear weapons of United States
at that time.
First test of the principle "Boosting"
Another event of Greenhouse
was the event called "George."
George was a huge weapon
of 225 kilotons
which was used to burn
a capsule deuterium.
This was the first experience with weapon
Thermonuclear we conducted.
Several people have mentioned, we
have discussed many times.
the end of the war, most
people wanted to stop, but not me.
Because there was a more
extensive knowledge in the key.
And in uncertain times
was to come,
with dangerous men
the world as Stalin
and our incomplete knowledge,
I thought it was necessary
to learn more.
Among all who knew
along the hydrogen bomb,
I was his only supporter.
And that is why I
given my contribution.
Not that I invented,
others have done,
and others in a common
Soviet did,
but I was the person
who has knowledge
and the availability of such knowledge
above all.
And I must say that
it has pleased Trueman,
, and he made the right decision.
"Truman approves
the hydrogen bomb "
Welcome aboard
USS Estes.
As you may know,
Estes is the command ship
the joint working group "1-42".
We are just minutes
the first explosion, "Mike"
Operation Ivy.
59 minutes to be exact.
We are here since dawn,
and we talked all night
wee hours of the morning.
As you can imagine,
emotions are very strong
right now.
And there are reasons for this.
If all goes as planned,
we shall see
The most powerful explosion
never caused on
the surface of the earth.
Island test "Mike"
is located in the north
of Enewetak Atoll.
about 40 km of the islands
Parry and Enewetak.
The two islands at the base of this
test area in the atolls.
The three islands that make up
the test site
have been connected by bridges,
constructed to facilitate
the displacement of an island to each other,
and to serve as a platform
for some of the instruments.
On the island "Mike" was the cab,
or the building housing the device.
The device "Mike" was called
the "wet bomb"
because he used
liquid hydrogen isotopes
to create the thermonuclear reaction.
This made the device
very impressive,
it weighed 62 tons which made
impractical as throwing weapon.
A wood tube
Zero was the island,
along the road,
to a detection station
located on the farthest island,
Cu tube was filled with helium,
to allow radiation
fatal to travel
more rapidly to
the detection station,
before the island is
consumed by the fireball.
You have a seat in the grandstand
for one of the most important moments
in the history of science.
In less than a minute you
see the most powerful explosion
ever seen by man.
The explosion will appear on the horizon
more or less there.
And what is the importance of the moment:
this is the first large trial
a hydrogen weapon.
If the reaction occurs, we
entering the thermonuclear age.
For the good of us all,
and that of our country,
I know you join me in
This expedition is a success.
30 seconds until time zero
Wear eye protection
or look away.
Do not remove the protection or
do not watch the explosion
for 10 seconds
after the first light.
Least 15 seconds.
Less 10 seconds.
Nine, eight, seven, six
First hydrogen bomb
2-6 approach "Ground Zero".
I head Bogoni.
station detection bogon
seems to be in good condition.
visual signals to indicate
the tunnel wood
All the islands of the test
seem to have been swept away.
Elugelab has completely disappeared.
There is nothing more than water
and what looks like a deep crater.
In the spring of 1953,
Commission for Nuclear Energy
and the Department of Defense has made
11 nuclear tests in Nevada
under the code name
The Upshot-Knothole objective was to
test new nuclear weapons,
improve tactics of combat,
and study the needs of defense
civil case of Soviet attack.
The first event, called "Encore",
was a 27 kiloton weapon
launched from an aircraft and
landed at an altitude of approximately 850m
over a wide line
The second explosion of the Ministry
of Defense, called "Grable"
exploded in the same region,
and was launched by the new
cannon artillery of the army.
A 280mm projectile was launched
and exploded in the same area
with a power of about 15 kilotons,
at an altitude of approximately 150 meters.
The least powerful,
15 kilotons to 150 meters,
produced a much greater destruction
that the higher power device,
Still, 27 kilotonnes of 850m.
This is because less energy
produces a shock wave abnormal
we now call "Pre Crusher"
that generates very violent
wind dynamic
generating for the target
very serious damage.
For example, a Jeep on the ground, had
not damaged especially with Encore,
but with Grable and
effect "Pre Crusher"
the same jeep was
broken into pieces,
and thrown out on
a distance of 150 meters.
There are many other features
these two launches,
but they opened a whole new view
on how to use weapons
nuclear in a combat situation.
Common sense tells them that
it's dangerous and stupid.
You would not want to risk your life
in a stunt like this.
Common sense tells us that to be pulled
by a gun is a risky business.
Common sense tells you not to
distraction on an airfield
with propellers and engines
in reaction activity.
handling dynamite
seems too dangerous.
But is routine
daily for men
because they observe the instructions
safety based on common sense.
But sometimes we forget that sometimes
breaches of security
can also be dangerous.
If confidential information
these test missions fall into enemy hands,
the consequences would be
disastrous for us all,
individually and collectively
as a nation.
Safety is just
common sense.
Do not take chances!
Avoid talking too much!
Store safely
confidential information
Immediately report
security breaches.
Early intervention can
prevent a minor incident
becomes a serious problem.
Avoid writing about
confidential documents at home.
Make sure your safety!
Do not be careless!
I hate careless people...
THE GREATES Work on Cluster
high-power hydrogen
had increased since
Operation Ivy,
culminating in spring 1954
with the operation "Castle Bravo".
The most powerful device detonated
in the atmosphere by United States.
Bravo was a hydrogen bomb that
uses solid thermonuclear fuel,
confirming the designs
Edward Teller and Stan Ulam
paving the way for bomb production
Hydrogen transportable by air
and more effective weapons.
The more powerful engine
Thermonuclear of the United States.
Far exceeding the power
provided 2.5 times,
Castle Bravo, with a power
15 megatons of explosive
completely shaved
vegetation of the island,
and took scientists
by surprise.
The huge explosion sent large
amounts of radioactive waste
into the atmosphere.
This led to exposure and
contamination of certain employees,
of local populations and crew
a Japanese fishing boat
who had entered the area
security without being detected.
This incident clearly
revealed to the public
the dangers of fallout
nuclear weapons.
be clear,
the threat of a war with bombs
Hydrogen is the greatest danger
that our nation has ever known.
bombers loaded with weapons
Nuclear can use various ways
and drop bombs on
main targets of United States.
The threat of destruction
has affected our lifestyle
in every town and every village
from coast to coast.
These are the signs
of our time.
This is just a sham,
a test, a training exercise.
But tomorrow, the siren could
mean something real.
And if you hear it, when
you drive your car,
while sitting at your desk,
or when working in your agency,
wherever you are,
what will you do?
What will happen to you?
Let hat on the back,
so that we can well see,
I ask for
a very personal matter.
How old are you?
I'm 65 on my next
anniversary. It's sad to say.
This makes you the oldest,
but also the youngest,
observers of our trench
Here at "Ground Zero".
There is a lovely lady
who stands behind you.
I wonder if I can
talk to her?
I would also have
a female response.
This is Helen Leininger
of the City of New York.
Helen, how long
did you wait?
Oh, about eight days.
- Eight... Nine days!
- Nine days!
if we calculate correctly.
Okay, I think it's best
back to Hill Media
and see what happens,
if we are close to the time H.
Leroy the big story that we
see here in the hill Media
This is the story of Civil Defense,
and force history
Military armored vehicles,
tanks and personnel transport.
Leroy, I want to be on the air
for all to see
split screen we have here,
using not only the cameras
who are here at Hill Media
but also those
with you in the trenches.
Come in split screen.
In few seconds you me
will take this position...
what you see behind me.
Look down
in this position.
I will protect my eyes
against flying debris.
I put the helmet on his head,
to protect myself against
falling rocks.
All right. Good luck, Roy. Let me
to explain something on the screen.
The portion of the screen where I
represents 1.6 km on your camera,
the other party is 3.2 km
We now turn to a
another room, I leave you.
Ten, nine, eight, seven, six
five, four, three,
two, one, zero.
The shock wave reaches the area of
checkpoint in about 30 seconds.
800 km off the coast
San Diego, California
Nearly nine years had passed
since the cancellation
of underwater tests
Operation Crossroads.
This test was finally realized,
Operating under the name "Wigwam."
At 800 km off the coast
San Diego, California
a 30 kiloton nuclear device
was suspended from a cable
to 600 meters deep
as a manned barge.
A towing cable
10 km long
extends from the barge.
Suspended from the cable,
there were three submarines
Unmanned called "squaws."
Apparatus and instruments
were placed in each submarine
to record the effects
of the nuclear explosion.
The aim of the operation
was to determine the kill zone
for an enemy submarine
in front of a nuclear
firing in depth.
25 seconds until
zero time.
20 seconds until
zero time.
15 seconds until
zero time.
Ten, nine, eight, seven, six,
five, four, three, two, one...
The test area Pacific
17 nuclear tests.
Operation Redwing was conducted
the Pacific.
Primarily for testing weapons
thermonuclear high power.
Seven months before Redwing,
the Soviet Union has demonstrated
the ability to drop
thermonuclear weapons
from strategic bombers,
tipping the balance of power
in their favor.
The event will be the first Cherokee
launch by a U.S. plane
of a thermonuclear bomb.
This weapon will explode with
a power of 3.5 megatons.
Nearly 200 times the power
the Trinity bomb.
Cherokee: First H-bomb
dropped from an American plane
Power: 3.8 Megatons.
The craters
explosions of high power
began to affect
test on the islands of the Pacific.
The buildings of the test site
Pacific disappeared
and available land became scarce.
The barges were increasingly
used as a means of transportation
cheap to deliver bombs
thermonuclear detonation on the high seas.
Many of these tests documenting
a growing concern...
A special phase of the study,
is the amount of radiation
which pass through the human body.
This requires tools
adequate in the stomach.
A small capsule is designed
with a series of films,
alternating with
spaces and dividers.
fixed to a cord and covered
with paraffin, the capsule is swallowed.
end of the cord out of the mouth,
for the capsule can be recovered
after exposure and
measuring radiation.
Gamma rays can cause
damage in two different ways,
or both.
First, they can
directly destroy tissue,
over time and eventually
cause the development of cancer.
The particles of interest
in particular have a life
ranging from a few years
thousands of years.
They can not cause damage,
unless they are introduced
in our body through food,
or water or the air we breathe.
examine the results of a
powerful thermonuclear explosion
area test of Pacific
in the Marshall Islands,
to 11 degrees north of the equator.
huge cloud rises,
through the troposphere,
and finally disperses and stabilizes
at an altitude of 23,000 meters,
fully in the layer
the stratosphere.
This brings us to most discussed
fission products, strontium-90.
Chemically similar to calcium
found in the soil,
strontium-90 following calcium
through regular cycles,
in our plant foods
and bones, meat and milk
our grazing animals.
After reaching the body,
strontium-90, such as calcium,
tends to concentrate in the bones,
especially those of children
who develop new bone.
The removal of strontium-90 has a
very limited scope in the body,
it is not a threat to
Genetics of reproductive cells.
But it is a threat to
bone marrow and bone
in the form of leukemia
or bone cancer.
If this happens, it would be a tragedy for those
involved, even if they are few.
Whether a statistically
minimal casualties may be warranted
is a personal evaluation
beyond the scope of the report.
Each citizen must be
its own assessment.
There are those who cry out loud
that there is absolutely no
real threat to the free world
and certainly nothing that can justify
nuclear tests or nuclear weapons.
Those who think otherwise say
development of the nuclear force
protection is
absolutely necessary
against the hostility of communism
and the nuclear threat.
In this perspective, victims
nuclear fallout, if any,
would be considered
of the Unknowns
the service of humanity.
Anonymous soldiers in a war
that would never have begun,
and that our nuclear power can
mean it will never happen.
the fall of 1957, with a moratorium
on tests looming on the horizon,
24 nuclear tests were
conducted in the Nevada desert
Operating under the name "Plumbbob".
During Plumbob, the event "Hood"
became the most powerful test
ever made in the atmosphere
of the continental United States .
Hood, a 74 kiloton device,
was suspended at 500 m above
the desert floor in a ball.
As new models of weapons
continued to be tested,
the Ministry of Defence
tests used
to accelerate the military training
in the nuclear battlefield,
while pursuing the study of
effects of nuclear explosions.
The 21st test conducted during the operation
Plumbbob the event was "Rainier."
It was the first explosion completely
led underground by United States.
The device exploded three kilotons
240m to under Mount Rainier,
spraying of the powder of rock
within 30 meters.
This technology will be of great importance
after the Treaty of restriction tests
banning all nuclear tests,
except underground
and to hide future experiments
from prying eyes.
During Operation Hardtack, the United States
detonated 35 nuclear devices,
as well as in all previous tests
the Pacific.
So far, nuclear testing
were seen largely
practice as intimidation,
increasing international tensions
that could lead
a nuclear war.
Against the increasing pressure,
the U.S. Government believed
although the weapons are essential,
and they are the only counterweight to
increasing the number of Soviet soldiers.
The Russians, having developed and finalized
a series of atmospheric tests,
pretended to surrender
tests, knowing full well
the United States had undertaken
a major operation.
Operations were conducted
Bikini and Enewetak in as before.
And a new site was created
Hardtrack for the operation,
Johnston Island.
During testing, one of the events
significant event was the Cactus.
It was a small device
18 kilotonnes of which produced
a crater about 42m wide
and 11m deep.
Many years later, in 1980,
all debris from the fission
and radioactive materials that
were in the Enewetak Atoll
were collected and disposed
in the crater of the bomb Cactus.
Then we placed a concrete dome
on the crater
to maintain and stabilize
radioactive materials.
A year before Hardtack,
the Soviets launched a small
satellite named "Sputnik-1."
Concerned about the superiority
Soviet missiles,
the United States have made
their first two shots
missiles at high altitudes,
known under the names "Teac" and "Orange".
Nuclear weapons from Teac and Orange
were carried into space
by a Redstone rocket,
developed by Wernher Von Braun.
Von Braun and his team
have developed
the V2 rocket for Germany
during World War II.
The Redstone was considered
an extension of the technology
the Second World War,
and was limited in scope.
Using liquid oxygen
as fuel,
Redstone propelled its nuclear charge
in the upper atmosphere of Earth,
and released for firing.
Teac, with a power
of 3.8 megatonnes
exploded about 80 km
of the surface of the Earth.
The explosion created a violent disturbance
magnetic in the atmosphere
called EMP or electromagnetic pulse.
This silenced the
radios to nearly 8 hours,
And damaged electrical circuits
from Hawaii to New Zealand.
Immediately after the events
Teac Orange and the Pacific
the United States led
"Operation Argus".
Three tests of missiles with warheads
from 1 kiloton in the South Atlantic.
The experiment sought Argus
to create and explore the use
of "traps" in radiation
the Van Allen belt of the Earth.
Firing at 480 km above the Earth,
experiment sought to create
a shield radioactive
to prevent the execution of a
Soviet missile attack.
These images, expanded by 16 mm
for your movie screen,
are the first to show their hands
levees that made history in Russia.
As testimony to the approval
Supreme Soviet
ascension as prime
Minister Nikita Khrushchev.
power that was held
earlier by Stalin.
The free world expects
diplomatic treaties obvious.
The first just
4 days later.
Russia announces that it suspends
nuclear testing.
A statement that the United States
describe as propaganda exercise.
the United States are preparing,
unless the Soviet Union
resume testing,
Refer to other tests
atomic and hydrogen bombs
over a period of 1 year from
the start of trading.
IVAN (The Monstrous Bomb)
57 Megatons
For two years, a moratorium
difficult on nuclear testing
remains between the United States
and the Soviet Union.
In secret, the Soviets
began to design
new weapons of mass destruction.
Including a hydrogen bomb
of 57 megatons,
the largest nuclear weapon ever created.
This monstrous bomb
was a smaller version
a model of 100 megatons,
and could be transported
and launched from an aircraft.
While we sit here,
Khrushchev detonated his bomb giant
cynically ignoring the Organization
United Nations.
Adlai Stevenson - Ambassador
U.S. to the UN (1961 - 1965)
By this act, the Soviet Union
added insult to injury
they broke the moratorium
on nuclear weapons testing
they raised the air pollution
to new levels,
they started a new race,
for more deadly weapons.
They ignored calls
UN humanitarian
and all peace-loving peoples.
They have presented no
to detonate the weapon
monstrous is useless.
They remained insensitive
the dangers of radioactive fallout
for the human race.
The Delegation of the United States
deeply regrets
contempt of this
world opinion.
And we think that following these
discouraging events,
other delegations should
express their views
on these new
shocking and disturbing.
Because today, Mr. President,
the world has taken a big step backwards,
into anarchy and disaster.
The Russians had broken
a voluntary moratorium.
the United States responded quickly
by a wide range of weapons testing
in retaliation for a large scale.
The tension rises when near
100 nuclear tests were conducted
between the test area in Nevada
and the Pacific Ocean,
under the code names Nougat,
Storax and Dominic.
Testing the Polaris missile
Power: [Confidential]
The primary importance
was uncertainty
on weapon systems
offensive and defensive
installed but not proven, since
the beginning of the voluntary moratorium.
anti submarine weapon
Power: [Confidential]
Operations resumed
on Johnston Island and Christmas Island
during Operation Dominic.
the United States negotiated the use
Christmas Island with the British
who used the island for
their own thermonuclear tests.
Multi megaton bombs were loaded
on B-52 strategic bombers,
sent from Hawaii, and release
on the southern tip of Christmas Island.
The Ministry of Defence continued
its progress in space
conducting five tests at high
altitude over Johnston Island.
Most of these bombs were transported
Thor missiles by the U.S. Air Force,
to continue research
neutralization of warheads
enemy at high altitude.
The nuclear weapons tests
had joined the space age.
Kennedy signed the ban
nuclear tests.
This small step towards safety
could be followed by other,
longer and less limited
but also more difficult to take.
With our courage and understanding
reinforced by this success,
supporting research on the willingness
man's essential for peace.
As president of the United States and
with the advice and consent of the Senate,
I now sign the instruments
of ratification of this treaty.
"Tightrope" was the last test
atmospheric done by the United States.
He was fired from Johnston Island
a missile with "Nike-Hercules"
air defense,
and was detonated at high altitude,
above Johnston Island.
This put an end to the whole series
atmospheric testing of United States,
when in 1963 we have joined the treaty
Nuclear Test Ban
which prohibits any atmospheric testing.
Between 1945 and 1962, the United States have
conducted 331 atmospheric nuclear tests.
100 countries approved the treaty
Ban nuclear tests
to end the threat
radioactive pollution
resulting from atmospheric testing