Borneo: The Fascination of Asia (2017) Movie Script

Welcome to Borneo
Today we will take you on a journey to Asia the largest island and the world's third largest island
After Greenland and New Guinea
With 740333 square kilometers
Borneo is part of the greater Sunda Islands archipelago located north of Java
East of Sumatra
West of sulawesi
And Southwest of the Philippine Islands
The South China Sea surrounds Borneo to the north and Northwest
The Sulu sea to the Northeast
The Celebes sea and Makassar Strait to the east
And the Java Sea and the carry meta straight to the South
The highest peak is Mount Kinabalu at 4095 m
Before the rise of the sea levels at the end of the last ice age
Borneo was in fact part of Mainland Asia
Three countries on Borneo
Malaysia and Brunei in the North
And Indonesia in the south
Roughly 73% of Borneo is Indonesian territory
26% Malaysian and merely 1% Brunei
The island is often covered in mist and clouds due to being so tropical
Borneo has one of the oldest rainforest in the world
Which is home to the endangered Borneo orangutan
In fact the island is home to many strange and exotic species
Which we discover more about later
Borneo also has some of the most spectacular cave formations on Earth
Which we too will learn more about later
As we fly over Borneo
We see that the island is made up of various types of forest
Like the rainforest and cloud forest
But also palm oil Plantation
Tropical rainforest are characterized by a wet and warm climate
There is no dry season as such and these forests tend to
be found within 10 degrees north and south of The equator
Monthly mean temperatures are over 18 degrees Celsius all year round
On average rainfall lies between 175 and 200 cm
Borneo's rainforest is roughly 140 million years old
And that's one of the world's oldest
This rainforest is home to over 15000 flowering plant species
3000 tree species
221 terrestrial mammal species
420 resident bird species
And roughly 440 freshwater fish species
WWF (World Wide Fund for nature)
Classified Borneo into 7 ecoregions
1 - Borneo lowland rainforest
These cover most of the island
Roughly 427500 square kilometer
2 - Borneo peat swamp Forests
3- Kerangas or sundaland Heath Forest
4 - Southwest Borneo freshwater swamp forests
5 - Sunde shelf mangroves
6 - Borneo montane rainforest
Cloud forest
These lie in the central Highlands above 1000 elevation
For example Kinabalu Mountain alpine Meadow
Which is an Alpine shrubland
Home to many endemic species like orchids
Heavy logging for the Malaysian and Indonesian plywood industry has destroyed huge rainforest
In fact Around half of the annual
Global tropical Timber comes from Borneo
Since the 1960s deforestation started extensively due to industrialization
During the 1980s and 1990s
Forest in Borneo were levelled at insane rates mainly for agricultural use
60 to 240 cubic meters of wood for being harvested per hectare in Borneo
Compared to 23 cubic meters per hectare in the Amazon
Palm oil plantations have developed widely and rapidly
Causing much of this deforestation
Much of the forest clearance was actually illegal
In the Malaysian territory on the Santa bong half Island
We visit to Bako National Park
Which is roughly 40 km by Road from Kuching
The park can be reached only by a roughly 20 minute boat ride from Kampung Bako
There are 16 different trekking trails to choose from in varying Links of distance
Bako National Park was founded in 1957
And is the oldest National Park in Sarawak
The Eastern Malaysian part of Borneo
It covers 27.27 Square km
At the tip of the Muara Tebas peninsula
At the mouth of the Bako in Kuching Rivers
Despite being one of the smallest Parts in Sarawak
Bako National Park
Is one of the most popular due to having multiple biomes
Even rainforest
A large amount of Wildlife
Jungle streams as well as waterfalls
And isolated beaches
The park is a sanctuary for about 150 endangered proboscis monkey
Which are endemic to Borneo
Bako National Park is known to be the best place to watch this monkey species
The proboscis monkey
Nasalis larvatus in Latin is often also called long nose monkey
Bekantan in Indonesia
Indonesian is often called the monkey - Monyet Belanda
Dutch monkey or a Orang Belanda
It is said that the name was given to this monkey species due the Dutch colonizers having look similar
Large bellies and noses
It is reddish brown in color
Arboreal and is easy to recognize
Due to its unusually large nose
It coexists with the Bornean Orangutan
Proboscis monkeys belong to the kolobanov subfamily of the old world monkey
This monkey is one of the largest species native to Asia
Males are between 66 and 76.2 CM
And can weighs 16 to 22.5 kg
Maximum 30 kg
Only males have a large nose which can be larger than 10.2 cm
Can hangs lower than the mouth
Females have a smaller shorter nose which is upturn
Males are easy to recognize due to their red penis and black scrotum
Males and females alike have bulging stomach
Which makes them look like having a potbelly
Interesting to note is also the fact that many of the monkeys toes are wet
The monkey is most common in coastal areas as well as along rivers
They only live in the lowlands and have no issues dealing with tide
Play like dipterocarp in River rainforest and also the mangrove forest
Swamps are also a habitat for this monkey
Which tends to stay within at least a kilometer of a water source
Proboscis monkeys are fairly good swimmers
And can even swim roughly 20m underwater
It crosses Rivers by swimming
Apart from this the monkey is arboreal
And moves by leaping between the tree branches
Often the monkeys jump down from branches into the water
Proboscis monkeys eat mainly fruits and leaves
Seasonal Fuller boar and frugivores
But also flowers
Seeds and even insects
Highlights are young leaves and unripe fruits
They are seasonal eater, eating mainly fruit from January to May
and leaves from June to December
Females become mature sexually at 5 years
Mating tends to be between February and November
And births between March and May
Born either at night or in the early morning young start eating solid food at 6 weeks
And are weaned at 7 months
Crocodiles, clouded leopards Eagles monitor,
Lizards and Pythons are their main predators
Another national park close to Kuching is
Gunung Mulu National Park
It is considered the jewel in the crown of the Sarawak National Park
And it is the largest
There are 544 square kilometers of primary rainforest as well as fast-flowing
Rivers and jungle stream
It is a UNESCO world heritage site
The park is probably most known for what is hidden underneath the forested slopes of these mountains
Name one of the largest Limestone cave system in the world
Yet it is not just the case that are worth looking out for
But also the biodiversity of this part
Since the 1930s the rich rainforest of the Mulu area has attracted signs
Almost every Expedition still finds new discoveries in both fauna and Flora
The park has 8 different Forest type
Including Peat Swap
Health and Mixed Dipterocarp
Moss forest and stunted upper Montage vegetation
There are thousands of fern
And Moss species
There are many flowering plants the marvelous
For example the 170 Wild Orchid species
10 pitcher plant species
There are also 75 mammal species
262 bird species
8 Hornbill species are found in Sarawak alone
74 frogs species 47 fish species
285 butterflies species
And 458 ants species
in Mulu National Park there are numerous
breathtaking caves to Marvel at
Mulu for showcase were selected for their uniqueness or Shear Beauty
A plank walk leads through the forest to
Deer cave and Lang's cave
while, Clearwater cave and Wind Cave are reached by boat of the Melinau river
Or by following a 4-kilometer nature trail
Deer cave is the world's largest single cave Passage
Sarawak Chamber is the world's largest natural chamber at 700 M long
395m wide
And at least 70 meters high
It has been said that this chamber
could accommodate roughly 40 Boeing 747 airplanes
Without the wings overlapping
Clearwater cave is the longest cave in Southeast Asia
In fact if you over 200 km of cave passage found
It is thought that this is only 30 to 40% of the actual total
Deer cave is huge at over 2 km in length
and never less than 90m High and wide
Some light lights up the main chamber partially
This one is 174m wide
And 122m High
due to deer sheltering here in the past
Local pinion and Berawan people named The Cave
Gua Payau / Gua Rusa / Deer Cave
A path leads one into the cave
And eventually one comes to the
Garden of Eden
We're a hole in the cave roof allows a shaft of light to enter
Due to the shaft of light
There is rich green vegetation thriving here
One also passes the well-known profile of Abraham Lincoln guarding the southern cave entrance
Highlights are not just the stalactites and stalagmites
But also the fact that these caves are home to millions of different bat species
- For example wrinkle-lipped bat
(Chaerephon plicata)
The largest colony of Swiftlets
or Aerodramus in Latin
In the world
And even cave dwelling snakes and insects
Between 5 and 7 p.m. on a nice day
You may well be treated to a spectacular sight
Black cloud of well over a million free-tailed bats
emerging from the cave entrance and going
Going in search of food
The park is important for its Karst Features
It just one of the most studied tropical karst areas in the world
Krast Topography is a landscape formed from the
dissolution of soluble rocks like Limestone, Dolomite and Gypsum
Underground drainage systems with sinkholes and caves are characteristic
The Mulu national park has three mountains or Sandstone pinnacle
Gunung Mulu
Gunung Api
and Gunung Benarat
These mountains are a marvelous sight to behold in the evening colors
The Mulu National Park supports one of the richest amounts of Flora worldwide
This is Ixora Coccinea
It is often called Jungle Geranium
Psychotria is a tribe of flowering plants in the Rubiaceae family and contains about 2,000
114 species
In 17 Genera
Its representatives are found in the tropics and subtropics
It's fruits or berries are blue rather than the more usual red color
Hibiscus is a genus of flowering plants in the mallow family
The genus is quite large
With several hundred species that are native to warm temperate
Tropical regions worldwide
The flowers are showy
Large with trumpet shaped
Five or more pedals
4 to 18 cm broad
Colors vary from white to Pink,
Red, Orange, Peach ,Yellow and purple
Nepenthes Rajah is an insectivorous pitcher plant species of the Nepenthaceae family
The plant is known for its large urn shaped traps
Which can be as large is 41cm High
20 cm wide
The plant can trap vertebra
For example frogs
Lizards and even birds and even small mammals such as rats
However insects are the main diet of the plants such as ants
Pagoda flower
Clerodendrum Paniculatum
Is a species of flowering plant in the clerodendrum genus of the Lamiaceae family
It is used both as an ornamental decoration in Asia as well as for medical uses
Butterflies and hummingbirds are very attracted to the flowers of this plant
Callicarpa in Latin
Is the genus of shrubs and small trees in the Lamiaceae Family
The plant is native to East and Southeast Asia
But also Australia, Madagascar ,Southeast North America and South America
Tropical species are evergreen
Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides)
Is a flowering plant growing on larger trees and lowlands and Savannah
It is neither a moss or lichen
But actually a flowering plant
This is the nepenthes villosa also known as Villose pitcher plant
pitcher can be 25 cm high and 9 cm wide
The mouth of the picture is oblique and elongated and covered by a lid with a pointed Apex
Princess flower Or Glory bush
Tibouchina urvilleana
Home in the tropics and subtropics
The plant grows up to 3-6 M tall and 2-3 M wide
Peacock flower
Caesalpinia Pulcherima is also known as red bird of paradise
This is the extended Lobster Claw
Heliconia latispatha
And it is native to Southern Mexico, Central America and Northern South America
It is up to 4 meters tall
And its leaves look similar to those of the bananas
This is the hanging Lobster Claw or false bird of paradise
Heliconia rostrata
It is a herbaceous perennial native to Peru
Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica and Ecuador
Flowers face down
And thereby provide a nectar source for birds like the hummingbird
In fact the reddish flower like Brax actually hide the true flowers of this plant
And therefore birds are required for pollination with specialized beaks
It is the national flower of Bolivia
Known as Patachou
According to experts Borneo has the world's
most extensive and diverse collection of orchids
Roughly 3000 species of orchids can be found here
We are still in the Malaysian territory on the Santubong half Island
Now we visit the Semenggoh or orangutan Reserve
We also take you to Sepilok Orangutan rehabilitation center
close to Sandakan in the northern part Borneo
The Bornean Orangutan (Pongo Pygmaeus)
Is an orangutan species native to Borneo Island
With a Sumatran orangutan it is the only genus of great apes native to Asia
Like other great apes the orangutans are very intelligent
In display Advanced use of tools as well as distinct
Cultural pattern
In fact these Apes share roughly 97% of their DNA with us human being
The bornean orangutan is the third heaviest living primate
After two gorilla species
And the largest truly arboreal or tree-dwelling animal living today
Compared to the Sumatran orangutan
The bornean orangutan is slightly heavier even if similar inside
Males weigh roughly 75 kg ranging from 50 to 100 kg
And or about 1.2 to 1.4 m in length
Females are less heavy it around 38.5 kg
Ranging from 30 to 50 kg
And less Long at 1 to 1.2 m in length
Captivity makes these dates sometimes gained too much weight
In fact there is a problem of overweight
The body of the Bornean Orangutan has a distinctive shape
These shapes have very long arms that can be up to 1.5 meters long
This allows them to climb very well
The fur is coarse and Shaggy with a reddish color
Both the hands and feet are designed to grasp easily which is necessary for climbing
They have a lifespan of 35 to 45 years in the wild
And sometimes live up to 60 years in captivity
Bornean orangutans or at home in tropical and subtropical
moist broadleaf forest in the Lowlands of Borneo
However they can also be found in more mountainous areas up to 1,500 m above sea level
Primary and secondary Forest canopy is what these apes like
They are known to move long distances in search of fruit-bearing trees
Wellbeing arboreal
These states do travel on the ground more than their Sumatran relatives
Possibly this could be due to there being no large terrestrial predators in Borneo
Well in Sumatra
The relatives face the Sumatran tiger as a predator
Bornean orangutans have a diet made up of over 400 types of food
figs, durians , leaves, seeds, bird eggs, flowers, honey, insects ,etc
the need of water quantities are obtained from fruit and Tree Hole
These apes have been sighted using tools to catch their food
For example
spear to try to catch fish
Even though it was not successful
Sticks are used as back scratcher
leaves have been used to wipe off feces or for holding a spiny durian fruit
Leafy branches are sometimes used as an umbrella to keep off the rain during travels
The Bornean Orangutans are more solitary compared to the Sumatran orangutans
Two or three orangutans with overlapping territories
may interact but only for short time.
Well not as such territorial, adult males will keep other males away
And only socialize with females in order to mate
Males are the most solitary
Sub-adult (unflanged) males will try to meet any female
Half the time they are successful
Even if females prefer flanged males
At 6 to 11 years of age females reach sexual maturity
They give birth at roughly 14 to 15 years of age
Newborns nurse every 3 to 4 hours
And at 4 months start taking soft food
Fed by the mother
During the first year baby orangutans cling to the mother's abdomen by holding on to the fur with their finger
At roughly four years the young are weaned
They then start their adolescent stage of exploring while still inside of their mothers
During this time the young actively seek other young play and travel companion
Sabah and Sarawak are the two Malaysian states where the Apes can be found
They are also at home in three of the four Indonesian provinces of Kalimantan
The Bornean Orangutan is an endangered species due to having lost most of its natural habitat based on
Deforestation palm oil plantations
Hunting and bushmeat trade
And capturing of young orangutans as pets
Tend to involve the mother being killed
These acts still pose a very serious threat to the existence of this Apes species
Also because the government rarely punishes perpetrator
Numerous orangutan rescue and Rehabilitation project exist in Borneo
Sepilok Orangutan Tehabilitation
Centre near Sandakan opened in 1964
The first official orangutan Rehabilitation project
We're back at Kuching
at the Gunung Mulu National Park
As we fly over the area
The peaks of the mountains and the Limestone karst formations as well as rock Pinnacles Cliffs and gorgeous
lush rainforest areas this site is magical
Mulu limestone's belong to the Melinau Formation
and are between 17 and 40 million years old
(Late Eocene to Early Miocene).
Below the Limestone lies the Mulu formation
Shells in sandstone
Which is between 40 and 90 million years old
(Late Cretaceous to Late Eocene)
These form the highest peaks in the Southeast sector of the park
The National Park is named after Mount Mulu
(Malay Gunung Mulu)
Which is the second highest mountain
After mount Murud in Sarawak at a height of 2376 m
the sandstone and Shale Mountain can be climbed via three camps
And is most known for his pitcher plant diversity
5 species have been recorded from Mount Mulu
Nepenthes hurrelliana, Nepenthes lowii, Nepenthes muluensis, Nepenthes tentaculata, and Nepenthes vogelii
We all look down on the Limestone Pinnacles of Mount Api
(Malay Gunung Api)
With neighboring Mount Benarat and Mount Buda
Part of the same formation
Mount Api is famous for the Striking Limestone karst formations or Pinnacles
And also is home to pitcher plant
At least eight species include
Nepenthes campanulata, Nepenthes faizaliana, Nepenthes hurrelliana, Nepenthes lowii,
Nepenthes muluensis, Nepenthes tentaculata, Nepenthes veitchii, and Nepenthes vogelii
Not only is the area home to many floors species but also funny unique to this location
For example 8 species of Hornbill have been spotted here
27 species of bats
And many mammals like a small Malaysian Sun Bear
Latin - Helarctos malayanus ,
which is the only known bear in Southeast Asia
Not far from Sadakan in the center of mangrove forest
Samawang is the Labuk Bay - Proboscis monkey sanctuary
This privately owned roughly 160 hectare Sanctuary located within an oil pomace.
Gives you the chance to observe the proboscis monkey up close amongst other animal
The mangrove forest was initially planned to be developed commercial
Fortunately in 1994 it was set aside
And open to the public
Here we also encounter the Rhinoceros Hornbill
(Buceros Rhinoceros)
Just one of the largest hornbills and the state bird of the Malaysian state of Sarawak
As well as the country's national bird
An adult bird can be the size of a swan
91 to 122 cm in length
2 - 3 kg in weight
In captivity they have been known to live up to 90 years
Like most hornbills the male has red or orange irises
while the female has whitish one
Although the bill and casque mainly White
There are yellow and orange places here in there
The tip of the casque curves upward
The under parts and tail of the bird are white
While the rest is a shiny black color
Lowland and montane tropical and subtropical climates are ideal for this bird
Edit can be found in mountain rainforest up to 1400 M
Borneo, Sumatra, Java, The Malay peninsula,
Singapore, in southern Thailand
like all hornbills the bird is omnivorous and eats fruit insects and small animals like
Rodents and smaller birds
As seen here the birds cannot swallow food caught at the tip of the beak
Their tongues are too short
And therefore they toss it back to the throat with a jerk of the hip
These hornbills make their nest
Inside tree trunk
Female stays with the eggs and then with the chicks
The male brings food for the female and Young
The mail brings mud with which the pair wall up the entrance to the tree cavity
Until there is only a tiny hole left
Through which the male feeds the female and chicks
Only once the chicks are fully feathered and old enough to leave the nest
Do the parents chip away the dry mud and let the chicks out
The Rhinoceros hornbill is threatened by habitat
loss and hunting for both meat and Feathers as well as casque
Carved into ornaments and Jewelry
It is as dense as ivory
At the very north of Borneo
in the East Malaysian state of Sabah
stand Mount Kinabalu
(in Malay: Gunung Kinabalu)
UNESCO world heritage site since 2000
Protected as Kinabalu Park
At 4096 m measured at the summit called Low's Peak
It is the highest peak in borneo's Crocker range and the highest
mountain in the Malay archipelago as well as in Malaysia
Geologically, Mount Kinabalu is a very young Mountain
It is essentially a massive pluton formed from granodiorite
which is intrusive into sedimentary and ultrabasic rocks
Forms the central part or core of the Kinabalu massive
The granodiorite is intrusive into strongly folded strata
probably of Eocene to Miocene age
And Associated ultrabasic and basic igneous rock
It was pushed up from the Earth's crust is molten rock millions of years ago
The granodiorite cooled and hardened only about 10 million years ago
the present landform is considered to be a mid-Pliocene peneplain
Arched and deeply dissected
Through which the Kinabalu granodiorite
body has risen in isostatic adjustment
It is still pushing up at the rate of 5 millimeters per year
During the pleistocene epoch of about 100000 years ago
Massive Mountain was covered by huge sheets of ice and Glaciers
which flowed down its slopes
Scouring its surface in the process
And creating the 1800 m deep
Low's Gully
It's Granite composition and the glacial formative processes are apparent when viewing its craggy Rock peaks
From the peak the view is breathtaking
Above all the cloud formations
Temperatures range from - 10 degrees Celsius to 10 degrees Celsius
in December to January
And 3 degrees to 15 degrees C in June to September
The mountain and surrounds our home
too much flora and fauna worth protecting
We return to the Labuk Bay proboscis monkey Sanctuary close to
Sadakan to watch another other monkey species at home in Borneo
The Silver Leaf Monkey or Silvery Lutung Langur
(Trachypithecus cristatus)
Is an old world monkey
Males are 52-58 cm in length
And weigh on average
6.6 kg
Females are 46 to 51 cm in length
And we're roughly 5.7 Kg on average
Silvery Lutung are arboreal and live in coastal Mangrove and riverine forest of Borneo, Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia
Mangrove swamps in nearby Forest region says where they like to spend all their time
they generally avoid traveling far from the coast or Rivers
This monkey has a herbivorous diet
And is above all a folivore, meaning it eats mainly leaves
Fruits and some seeds and flowers only make up 9% of its diet
Compared to other monkey's this species tends to be found in the middle canopy of the forest
That leaves the higher branches to monkeys with a more frugivorous
Mainly fruit-eating diet
Silvery Lutung are diurnal
Meaning active during the day and travel in groups of 9 to 40 individual
They rarely leave the trees and each group occupied the home range of 22-43 hectares
At night they sleep in a single tree all together
The social structure is made for lineal
And Harem based with females remaining in the group for life
Well males leave after reaching adulthood
These males live in small groups until they are able to take over and established harem
Males dominate females
And females with young
Dominate females without
Still there is little aggression in the group
Silvery Lutung breed all year round
However each female only tends to give birth once every 18 to 24 months
Single young is born after a gestation period of 181 to 200 days
It weighs around 400 grams and is about 20 cm in length
Young are cared for by females communally and are only weaned after 18 months
Despite the biological mother stopping lactation after 12 months
The young are sexually mature almost directly after weaned
Females tend to give birth at 35 months of age
In captivity these monkeys can live up to 31 years of age
Unfortunately Silvery Lutung have been
extensively used in medical research
Due to being unusually susceptible to human diseases like apes
These monkeys are classified
as near threatened by the IUCN
Problems are habitat loss due to logging and palm oil Plantation
As well as hunting for meat and pet trade
Back at the Santabong half Island in
Bako National Park near khucing we get a good look
Look at how a mangrove forest function
Mangroves are fascinating in many ways
This tree has a special desalinating method
Inside the mangrove tree is less salty than the water surrounding
Not every mangrove species deals with desalination in the same way
One species excrete salt by first accumulating it in the bar
When the bark dies it is shed along with the salt
Another species excrete excess salt through its leaves
Specialized Leaf glands push the salt in the leaves
Which is washed off by the next rain
Nature is incredible and very creative
If you were to lick a mangrove Leaf you would be able to taste the salt
Why are mangroves so important
One important reason is that they help prevent erosion
Also these Mangrove for support and amazing ecosystem of fauna and Flora
For example mangrove forest are the breathing
spawning and Nursery places for mollusks
Crustaceans and many fish
Mangrove debris are also important
We are source of nutrients for other
ecosystems surrounding the mangrove area
Mudskippers love Mangrove ecosystems and mudflap
Mudskippers are amphibious fish
And belong to the Oxudercidae subfamily
within the gobidet gobies family
Scientifically there is some debate as to how to classify this creature
But they can be defined as our shooter seen gobies that
are fully terrestrial for some portion of the daily cycle
Mudskippers grow to a length of about 9.5 cm
And use their pectoral fins and pelvic fins to walk on land
They typically live in intertidal habitats and
exhibit unique Adaptations to the environment
That are not found in most intertidal fishes
Typically survive the retreat of the tide by
hiding under wet seaweed or in tide pools
Mudskippers are active when out of the water for
feeding reasons but also for interaction with others for mating
For example
They are carnivorous opportunist feeders
And eat small prey like tiny crabs and other arthropods
The area is also home to the
Tuffed Ground Squirrel or Groove Toothed Squirrel
(Rheithrosciurus macrotis)
It is a rodent species in the sheredy family and only found on Borneo
It lives on hillsides and lowland primary Forest at altitudes of under 1200 m
Due to deforestation it today is vulnerable and protected in Sarawak
However it is being hunted with the license in Sabah and
natives use its tail to decorate the hilt of their parang knives
The squirrel's head and body measure about 335 to 352 mm in length
And it weighs roughly 1-2 to kg
It forages on the ground and in lower canopy
It can climb well to seek food
It is diurnal and its activity
Well local say the squirrel is carnivorous
Even call it
Vampire squirrel, this is not have been observed scientific
Rather it seems that it eats
Fruit seeds nuts and insects
On the Santubong half Island Semenggoh Orangutan Reserve
We chance upon a crocodile relaxing in the Sun
The Siamese crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis)
Is a small to medium-sized freshwater crocodile
native to Indonesia-Borneo, Brunei, East Malaysia, Laos,
Cambodia, Burma, Thailand and Vietnam
It is critically endangered and listed on IUCN red list
It has a rather broad smooth smell
Elevated bony Crest behind each other
It is always green in color with dark green variation
large females can measure 3.2 m and weigh 150 kg
while adult males can reach
4 m and weigh 350 kg
However most adults do not exceed 3 m in the wild
Well originally found over most of Southeast Asia
This species is now extinct or nearly extinct in most countries except Cambodia
Crocodile lives in a wide range of freshwater habitats
Like slow-moving rivers and streams
Lake, Marshes and swamps
Adult crocodiles eat mainly fish and snakes
But also amphibians and small mammals
Little is known about how they reproduce in the wild
Female seem to build Mound Nest from scraped up plant debris mixed with mud
In captivity they breed during wet season
April to May
and lay 15 and 50 eggs
Female crocodiles guard these eggs until they hatch
Young are helped out of the eggs during hatching and carried to the water in the mother's Jaws
Overall the species is pretty on aggressive towards humans
And unprovoked attacks are unknown
These crocodiles face the threat of deforestation and habitat loss
As well as capture for farming and hunting for their skins
Borneo is famous for its butterflies and moths
Insect order lepidoptera
Home to around 11000 species
Roughly 10% are endemic to the island
And 70% restricted to form Sunda land mass
Malay, Peninsula, Sumatra
Java , Borneo and Palawan
Each species has rather specific
to the area it needs For survival
And they differ in shape
Colors and size depending on the butterfly species
The Rajah Brooke's Birdwing
(Trogonoptera brookiana) with its Vivid Wing motif of green triangles is a famous One
Unlike their temperate counterparts in which mass
migrations can be a regular seasonal event
Butterflies of the ever wet Tropics migrate infrequent
Unpredictably and often on a very local scale
There are many dragonflies in Borneo to
275 species have been named so far
Many more remain to be discovered
In fact
Borneo has one of the richest and most exciting dragonfly fauna as worldwide
With over 40% of the species are occurring nowhere else
Ants are some of the most abundant and diverse animal groups and tropical
And they function at many levels
As predators and prey
as detrivores bio turborater
Organisms that recycle decomposing organic matter
And as Mutualist
An interaction between two species where both derive benefit
Ants also have a role as indicators of environmental change
Borneo has more than 700 species of ants
Representatives of about 30% of Aunt general
And about 5% of ant species global
The Borneo represents only 0.5% of the earth's land surface
Borneo is also home to many spider species like the Jolokia
This is a spider genus of the Salticidae family
Jumping spider
As one walks through the forest
One encounters many Nets of spiders
Eager to catch prey
This is the ancient-looking tractor millipede
(Genus Barydesmus)
Which feeds on rotting vegetation in the rainforest and is about 12 cm long
It is quite harmless to Human
This is the Pill Millipede
(Genus Glomerida)
There are about 12000 name species classified into 16 orders
And around 140 families
Making Diplopoda the largest class of
An arthropod Group which also includes centipedes and other multi-leg creatures
They tend to be slow-moving and detrivores meaning that they eat decaying leaves another dead plant matter
Millipedes are generally harmless to humans and they are some of the oldest known land animal
Millipedes can be distinguished from the somewhat similar but only distantly related centipedes
class Chilopoda
Which move rapidly are carnivorous
And have only a single pair of legs on each body segment
This is the giant millipede
It is a long invertebrate that can reach 20 cm in length
And they have as many as 300 pairs of legs
It is a harmless gentle giant of the rainfall
Vegetarian feeding mostly on soft decomposing plant tissue
It is dark in color no color variations exist
Countless fungi species exist in the moist rainforest areas of Borneo
Bracket or shelf fungi grow in semicircular shapes
It look like trees or woods
They can be parasitic
Saprotrophic or both and Thrive mainly on alive or dead trees
They are often beautiful and color
And show annual growth rings
Another species of monkey found in Borneo is the macaque
The southern pig-tailed macaque
(Macaca nemestrina)
The medium-sized old world monkey
It gets its name from Latin meaning the god of Grove
Males can weigh up to 5 to 15 kg
This macaque monkey is mainly terrestrial but also a skilled climber
And it loves water
It can be found in rainforest up to 2000 m
But also in plantations and Gardens
The monkey lives in rather large groups that are split into smaller groups during the day while looking for food
It is an omnivore and eats mainly fruits
Seeds, berries
Cereals, fungi, and invertebrate
Among males there exists a hierarchy based on strength
With females the hierarchy bases on heredity
Meaning that the daughter of the dominant female will be placed above all other females in the group
The dominant female leads the group
Males are more in charge of managing conflicts within the group and for defense
Sexually the monkeys Armature at 3 to 5 years
Female gestation lasts roughly 6 months
And she gives birth to one infant every two years
weaning of the young occurs at 4 to 5 months
In Thailand
This monkey has been trained for 400 years to harvest coconut
The Sun Bear or Honey Bear
(Helarctos malayanus)
Is a bear found in the tropical forest of Southeast Asia
The name
Honey bear comes from the fact that it loves honey
It is classified as vulnerable by IUCN
Mainly due to loss of habitat from deforestation
The bear has a long tongue
22-25 cm
Which is protrusible in order to extract insects and honey
they teeth are very large
Above all the canine
Bite Forces high in relation to the body size
It's claws have a cream color and are large
Curved endpoint
They are sickle-shaped to help the bear climb very well
Also there are useful to open tropical hardwood
trees in pursuit of insects, larva or honey
The sun bear is the smallest type of bear
Adults are between 120 and 150 cm long
27 to 80 kg in weight
The sun bears habitat is tropical evergreen forest of Southeast Asia
But it has a hard time surviving in the wild
Since food is available all year round the bear does not hibernate
Bees, bee hives and honey are the favorite food item
The Bears are omnivores and feed on termites
Ants, beetles, larvae
Vertebrates and a variety of fruits
And nuts
The Bears have a very good sense of smell with which they detect most of their food
These pairs tend to be solitary accept females with their young
They tend to be diurnal but some are active at night for shorter.
They sleeping Hollow logs or tree cavities
But also between the roots or even in tree branches
In captivity the Bears show social behavior and sleep most of the day
When surprised in a forest
They can be very fierce
Females mate at around 3 years of age
During mating the Bears show hugging behaviour amongst the other
Gestation last 95 to 174 days
Litters are made up of one or two
Cubs weighing between 280325 g each
After 1 to 3 months the Cubs can run around and play as well as forage near their mother
Sexual maturity is reached after three to four years
In captivity the Bears can live up to 30 years
The loss of habitat and Commercial hunting are the Bears biggest threat
Humans are the main Predator by far
The Water Monitor
Varanus salvator is basically a very large lizard native to South and Southeast Asia
Males are larger than females
Adults are roughly 1.5 - 2 meters in length and weigh close to 20 kg
They have muscular bodies with long powerful laterally compressed tail
Water monitors use their long tails, Claws and Jaws to defend themselves
The water monitor as its name suggests
Thrives in areas close to the water
It is cold blooded and therefore efficient
as surviving where other large carnivores cannot
They are very good swimmers and make
use of the raised fin on their tails for steering
Monitors can stay underwater for nearly
20 minute
They are carnivorous and eat a wide range of prey
Like fish
Frogs, rodents, insects, Birds, crabs, Snakes, Turtles
Young crocodiles and above all their eggs
And dead animals that have been left by others
The water monitor is hunted often illegally for its skin
As many as 1.5 million Skins are
exported yearly to Europe, USA and Japan
Mainly for use in fashion accessories
like handbags Shoes, belt etc
Their meat is consumed in some places too
Various subspecies exist like this Southeast Asian water monitor
Varanus salvator macromaculatus
It is home in Mainland southeast Asia, Singapore, Sumatra,
Borneo and smaller offshore islands in the region
The Kinabatangan River
Sungai kinabatangan is a river in Sabah
It is the second longest river in Malaysia with over 560 kilometers
from the headwaters in the Mountains of Southwest Sabah
to its outlet at the Sulu Sea, east of Sandakan.
The river is known for its wildlife and different habitats
Such as Limestone Caves at Gomatong Hill, Dryland
Dipterocarp Forest, Riverine Forest Freshwater swamps
And even salty mangrove swamps close to the coast
It is also a great place to watch bird
Especially from April to October
The flowering and fruiting season
The Kinabatangan region can be visited all year round
However it is often flooded during the wettest
part of the year in December and January
The Northeast Monsoon from November to March brings heavy shower
Above all in December and January
The lashing rain causes the river to swell quickly
And often it overflows its banks
And spreads across the flat land creating huge floodplain
Borneo has an average year-round temperature of 27 to 32 degrees Celsius
And a relative humidity of 80%
The seasonal winds or monsoons bring either dry warm weather
Or heavy rain
Rainfall can be over 4000 millimeters per annum in certain areas
But averaged around 220 ml per month
April is the driest month with only about 107.3 mm of rain on average
While December is the wettest month
461.8 mm of rain on average
The Kubah national park on the Santabong half
island is an easy and enjoyable day trip from Kuching
From the Waterfront in Kuching the park is very visible
The massive Sandstone Ridge with a three mountain peak
Gunung Serapih 911 m
And the slightly smaller Gunung Selang and Gunung Sendok
Situated on a small Sandstone plateau
The small Park of roughly 22 square kilometers
Boast Crystal Clear streams
And a host of small waterfalls and bathing pools
It is mostly covered by mix dipterocarp Forest
But it also has one of the widest selections of palms and orchids in Borneo
The varied Wildlife includes bearded Pig, mouse, deer
Black hornbill and many species of amphibians and reptiles
There are numerous tricks to discover
The one leading past the waterfall is highly recommended
The waterfall consists of a number of sections with the
main section dropping some 10 m onto a Wide Rocky Ridge
Below this Ridge is a small pool that is ideal for a cool jungle dip
At the Northwestern tip of Borneo there is another national park that is a must-see
Tunku Abdul Rahman National Park
Taman Negara Tunku Abdul Rahman
Is made up of five Islands located 3 - 8 km of Kota Kinabalu in Sabah
Spread over 4929 hectares
Part covers the sea with 2/3
The five islands are
Park was named after the first Prime Minister of Malaysia Tunku Abdul Rahman
The islands are under laid by folded sandstone and sedimentary rock
They were part of the crocker range but towards the
end of the Ice Age roughly 1 million years ago
The sea level Rose and resulted in a cut off
part of the range from the mainland
There by forming today islands
Exposed Sandstone outcrops still form the coast of most islands
And show Cliffs
Caves, honeycomb
And deep crevasses along the shore
Temperatures are between 23.8 to 29.4 degrees C all year
Humidity stays fairly High year round
We return to the Bako National Park close to Kuching
And take a closer look at the crabs scuttling across the beach
There are many crabs have different species like the big hermit crab this seems to have a greenish shell
Or the blue fiddler crab that loves man grows in salty marshes
Just as much as Sandy muddy beaches
And it's easy to recognize due to its color
as well as the distinctly asymmetric claw
Fiddler crab males
Have an oversized claw or Kila
Which they use in combat of courtship over females
Smaller claws used during feeding
It picks up a chunk of sediment from the ground and brings it to the crabs mail
The contents are sifted through
The crab is a detritivore
Once anything edible is extracted such as algae, microbes, fungus and other decaying matter
Sediment is replaced in the form of a small ball
These can be found in front of actively use burrow
Experts think that this feeding habit of
The crab is crucial to preserving the Wetland environment
Because by sifting through the sand
The crabs aerate the substrate
And prevent anaerobic conditions
The movement the crab makes while picking up
food explains the name of the crab species
It looks as if the crab we're
playing the larger claw like a fiddle
The Silvery Lutung monkeys are
often found playing down at the beach
Since they like water
They are not afraid of the waves and
often found frolicking close to the way
Of course
The beach is also an interesting place to search for food
As the sun sets on Borneo
We can only encourage you to visit the largest island in Asia
And Discover it for yourself