Ocean Predators (2013) Movie Script

NARRATOR: The deep blue.
The origin of all life.
Lagoon bays, oceans and seas.
Billions and billions of litres of water,
all containing an abundance of species,
which are unique to our planet.
From the smallest living being
up to the biggest animals on earth.
From harmless vegetarians
and animals who live on plankton,
to the most dangerous
predators on earth with razor sharp teeth
which can wreak
havoc beyond our imaginations.
Beings that we love for
their blaze of colour,
and beings, that for centuries,
we have feared
for the stories told about them.
All of this is accommodated
by the wonderful,
almost infinite element of life, the sea.
Here, in the oceans of our planet,
live some highly trained predators.
Sharks are one example of these predators.
They have been on this earth
for over 400 million years
and, in that time,
have hardly needed to change or adapt.
They are the kings of our oceans,
truly the pinnacle of sub-water evolution.
The number of species of shark
is still not entirely clear
because, to this day, new,
previously unknown species are discovered.
At this time,
we know of about 500 different species.
All of these sharks have strategies
and tactics to catch prey.
All of them are perfectly
adapted to life in the sea.
Some of them hunt in the daytime,
some only at night.
We will now search
for the most dangerous hunters
and find out what
makes these animals so frightening.
We will also find out
which of these underwater hunters
is the most dangerous
and which can be crowned
king of the predators.
More than half of these animals live
in the deep ocean, around 650 feet down,
so they are rarely seen by man.
All various sizes, shapes,
and textures are represented.
From the 21 inch dogfish,
to the giant whale shark,
which can grow up to 60 feet long.
From very rare species, which have only
been seen in specific areas,
to common ones which can be found
in almost every part of the world.
Let's go on a journey to discover
these impressive and beautiful animals.
Let's dive off together
into the fascinating
and exciting underwater world of sharks.
We start with a very common fellow.
The family of reef sharks.
They can be very different
and the largest reef shark
can reach a maximum of 7 feet in length.
There are three species of reef sharks
we take a look at.
The whitetip, the blacktip
and the silvertip reef shark.
Have a look at this beautiful breed,
and you will quickly realize
how you can distinguish between them.
For, as their names imply,
there is a band of colour
on the tip of their mayor fins.
Reef sharks can
weigh from 30 up to 70 pounds.
With its slim body shape,
it is perfectly adapted
for hunting in the coral reef.
Here, the agile hunters find their prey
between coral branches and in caves.
Small fish, crabs, lobsters
and squid are its main prey.
With deft, snake-like movements
they can manoeuvre
in even the tightest of crevices.
The different members
of the reef shark family
can grow from 5 to 6.5 feet,
making them larger than most human beings.
In rare cases, some reef sharks
can reach a length of 9.5 feet.
Their mouths contain 96 teeth,
three times as many as a human,
which makes them
extremely effective hunters.
In addition, the reef sharks
also have exceptional sensory perception.
His excellent sense of
smell acts as a radar,
which is useful,
as he prefers to hunt at night.
But even during the day
the stomach can growl.
And, so, if the sharks are not resting
they are always on
the lookout for small snacks.
The whitetip reef sharks
have a number of favourite places.
Even over several years,
these animals visit the same resting places
day after day.
The reef shark, like all sharks,
benefits from its exceptional skeleton.
This is because the shark's skeleton
is made of cartilage, and not bones.
That is why it's more
pliable than most animals.
This is an immense advantage
for these hunters.
A relatively low body weight
and high flexibility
make these animals
quick and agile swimmers.
Unprovoked attacks from this
modest species are extremely rare.
If they feel threatened,
they would much rather flee than fight.
Once the white hunter
learns of the advantage of a reef,
he always comes back.
Diving tourists are delighted.
Attracting the gentle souls with fish bait
is easy,
and peaceful sightings of the sharks
are guaranteed.
Unfortunately, their prey is also
very popular within the human diet.
Therefore, by overfishing,
we increasingly
eliminate the natural
habitat of these sharks.
In some parts of the oceans,
we have already
annihilated 80% of the population of sharks.
The main reason for their decline is that
they are very often caught by
longline fishermen and gill nets.
With limited breeding,
sharks take a long time to reach puberty,
and then only get a few offspring a year.
The survival of these sharks
is difficult enough as it is,
but a strong presence of near-shore
fisheries makes it even more troublesome.
Better management of shark fisheries
and shark habitats is urgently needed.
In their natural habitat,
the whitetip reef sharks have
only one group of natural enemies,
bigger sharks.
Like the tiger, white or bull sharks.
They are higher in the food chain,
as we will see later when we
come to our top three predators.
During the daytime, the reef sharks
sleep on sandy ground and in caves.
They sleep off the nocturnal hunt.
Unlike many other sharks,
the different reef sharks
do not necessarily have
to be in motion to breathe.
By opening and closing their mouths,
they can create enough water
passing through the gills
to extract oxygen out of the water.
In our ranking,
all the different reef shark species
only occupy the lower end,
but they are still
dangerous predators ranked
high on the food chain
of their reefs.
On the other hand,
they are completely harmless for divers,
so it is possible to observe everything
about them that fascinates us.
If you are underwater,
it is very likely that you will
come across a reef shark sooner or later,
because this species is so
geographically widespread
in warm temperate seas.
These two clown fish
always rest in their favourite place,
near a protective sea anemone.
With it, they live in a symbiosis.
The anemone is toxic to most fish.
However, the skin of the clown fish
is immune to their poison
and, so, the clown fish
hides in its tentacles
whenever the next
dangerous predator shows up.
Within this colourful coral world,
there is yet another highly specialized
hunter at home, the nurse shark.
The family of nurse sharks can grow from
1 .5 feet to 14 feet in length,
making them double the length
of the whitetip reef shark.
The most unusual thing
about the shark is its liver.
It can weigh up to 88 pounds,
20 times heavier than a human liver.
The liver is so large
because, unlike bony fish,
sharks don't have swim bladders.
They instead rely on their livers
to produce an oil
which gives them buoyancy.
These hunters can be found,
not only in the East Pacific,
but also at the coast
regions of the Atlantic.
If the nurse shark decided to attack,
he would only need one bite.
The reason for that is the mouth
construction of the nurse shark.
It works like a vacuum cleaner,
and sucks the prey in.
Hunting, he shows the typical
behaviour of the nurse sharks,
searching in columns
or under rubble for hidden prey,
which he will simply suck into his mouth
and do his best to filter the water.
Although remnants of coral and algae
have been found
in the stomachs of nurse sharks.
The vacuum effect not only
makes hunting easier for the nurse shark,
it also allows him to breathe
while he's not moving.
The nurse shark is one of
a few types of shark with this capability.
This gentle shark
can be quite lazy during the day.
Caves, little sandy places,
or under coral columns
are perfect places for a nap.
This is when he
likes to be around his own kind
who enjoy the quietness of the day with him.
Even though the nurse shark
doesn't have great eyesight,
he is still not one to mess with.
Sharks have fantastic senses.
For example,
they are able to locate other fish
even in the deepest,
darkest recesses of the ocean.
The reason for this enormous advantage
is the lateral line,
a system of sensory organs which reach
from the shark's head to its tail fin.
The nurse shark seems to have
two small tusks.
Actually these "tusks" are barbels.
The barbels are found on the shark's snout
and contain powerful sensors
which help the shark detect nearby prey.
The good-natured nurse sharks
are easy prey for spear hunters.
But the greatest menace for the nurse sharks
are the changes to their native habitat,
the reef.
And, especially, fishing and finning.
The numbers in the southern Atlantic at the
coast of Brazil are a primary concern.
Nurse sharks, though, are not on
the same level of danger as larger sharks.
Their features still make them individuals
which need to be taken seriously.
This hunter is just like the nurse shark,
fond of looking for food on the coral reef.
The moray eel.
She has no paired fins or gill cover.
She, therefore,
bears most resemblance to a snake,
but, in fact, belongs to
the eel-like bonefish family.
The moray eel
can be found all around the world
where the water temperature is right.
The longest moray eel ever found
was an incredible 13 feet long.
Even though moray eels
don't have the best vision,
they will always find their prey.
Their sense of smell is
four times as powerful as that of a dog.
The moray eel's size varies,
depending on what kind
of eel family she belongs to.
Some come to just a hand's length,
others are up to 10 feet long.
This fish has come
dangerously close to the eel's mouth.
Luckily this moray
seems to have no appetite.
Even though it doesn't have
any protective armour,
sharp rock edges
are of little concern for the moray eel.
She is covered with a thick layer of slime
which functions as an
overall body layer that
protects her well from
external injuries.
These smaller creatures can also be scary.
The reason, the constant
opening and closing of the mouth.
This, however, isn't designed to scare,
but allows the moray eel to breathe.
She holds her mouth open to let
oxygen-rich water flow through her gills.
But if the mouth remains open,
caution is advisable.
A moray eel can attack easily,
quickly snapping her mouth shut.
Here, we see the eel's head
with its strong hook teeth.
Their bite can be fatal.
Their teeth are not only very sharp,
but also dirty.
For that reason,
an eel bite can be infectious for victims.
But that's not all.
Their teeth are also equipped with barbs.
Just one bite
and he doesn't let his victim off.
With her flexible muscular body,
the moray eel can press herself
into very small crevices.
Eels like to live hidden in caves,
crevices and coral reefs,
and will usually only
leave to hunt at night.
During the day,
you only get to see the head of the moray,
which sticks out of the shelter.
Morays live most of their lives
in the same cave.
Larger eels have several shelters
that can be up to 650 feet apart.
Morays often live permanently
with cleaner shrimps.
The shrimps remove
leftovers from between the
eel's teeth when the
eel opens its mouth.
The cleaners are not eaten,
as they are mutual benefactors.
The moray prefers to eat at night
and usually stalks in the cover of darkness
to catch her sleeping prey.
But sometimes their hunger is just too great
to ignore all those treats around them.
Although moray eels are rather near-sighted,
when it comes to their sense of smell,
they cannot be messed with.
The large surface area of the nose
gives a marvellous sense of smell.
When he goes hunting at night,
his highly trained nose
makes up for his bad eyesight.
If a fish wants to be safe from him,
he shouldn't go near the reefs.
Other predators use this area
as their hunting territory, too.
A lightning-quick attack
and a swimming style
that is comparable to a flying arrow
are its trademarks.
This is the barracuda.
At just 1 to, in some rare cases,
6.5 feet in length,
the hunters of the barracuda family
may be smaller
than some of the oceans' top predators,
but they make up for this with their speed.
This is due to their extremely streamlined,
arrow-shaped bodies
which means they can swim
more than twice the speed
of a motor boat over a short distance.
He bares enormous canine teeth
primarily in the lowerjaw.
The scissor-like teeth
dig deep into the flesh of the victim,
and cause very serious wounds.
These silver arrows
are masters of observation.
Their vision is excellent.
Even in murky waters
they have great orientation skills
and can find their way
without any difficulty.
This helps them considerably
when finding their prey.
Sometimes a barracuda will pitch up camp
in, either turbulent harbour waters
or well-visited bay areas.
This inevitably results
in some surprise rendezvous with humans.
Adult barracudas are very confident.
They defend their territory aggressively.
They do not differentiate
between other marine life or humans.
Some barracuda even look out for
a nesting place on rocks or ledges.
A perfect stronghold to prepare
strategies for attack and defence.
They bide their time
in between rocks and corals.
The barracuda is unparalleled
in terms of speed.
Barracudas don't leave their prey
much time to think.
Their victims always need to be on guard.
If the barracuda has any appetite,
its bite would only
take 41 milliseconds to close.
If it came to a swimming race,
they'd certainly be victorious.
Once they get going,
they're like torpedoes through the water.
With a top speed
of more than 30 miles per hour,
they are one of the fastest creatures
in the ocean.
There is limited understanding
of their reproduction.
Like most bonefish,
they spawn into the open water,
where the larvae develop into adults.
They are oviparous,
meaning they spread their egg cells
in the open sea.
Full moon seems to be
the preferred time to spawn.
They assemble in great swarms
at the edge of rock and coral reefs.
These little nippers roam in groups.
This is typical behaviour
for young barracuda
as they mainly hunt small fish.
The adult animals would
never be satisfied with small nibbles.
Instead, they prey on mackerel
on the high seas.
These speedsters can even
keep up with young tuna fish.
The barracuda is
not only native to the Pacific,
they can be found in
tropical and subtropical oceans
and have even been known
to visit the Mediterranean area.
Barracuda are very fast and deadly predators
who spread over large parts of the world.
More than any other shark,
this species have to rely on
speed and surprise to catch their prey.
Even if we sometimes
wish this killer
is not able to catch
their victim,
the barracuda contributes an important part
to the balance of the sea world.
So we are lucky to have
such a skilled hunter in our oceans.
These eagle rays calmly
orbit over the corals in search of food.
But this reef belongs to the hammerheads.
The hammerhead sharks,
with their hammer-shaped head,
are the most curious looking sharks.
The great hammerhead
can grow to truly giant proportions.
The head is widened by its cephalofoil.
The cephalofoil looks like a bent rectangle,
which is the typical form of
a hammerhead shark head.
The hammerhead has
settled all around the world,
where we find tropical and warm waters,
but he always
remains very close to the coast.
Up until today, we know about
nine different types of hammerheads.
Some hammerheads grow
to a length of around 13 feet.
But even more impressive than their size
is their ability to sense electricity.
This is equivalent to a human being
sensing the electrical current
given off by a 12 volt battery
through two floors.
Hammerhead sharks are present
in almost every ocean on earth,
but they especially love the warmer regions.
They feed on fish, crustaceans,
squid and stingrays.
Hammerheads are one of the rare species
which can reproduce without a partner.
Genetically, the offspring is a clone,
because the genotype
is identical to their mother's genotype.
This kind of reproduction
only usually occurs in smaller species
such as insects, snails and amphibians.
So it is particularly astonishing
to observe it taking place
in a species as large as the hammerhead.
But unlike these small creatures,
the hammerhead does not lay eggs.
They instead give birth to living offspring.
This, and the fact that sharks are
very difficult to keep in captivity,
resulted in the first observations of the
parthenogenesis reproductive technique
happening only about 10 years ago.
But scientists are certain
that this type of reproduction
only happens under unique circumstances.
The young scalloped hammerhead sharks
are found in groups
that can grow
to several hundred in strength.
They swim along the coast in swarms,
using their powerful sonar to, literally,
scan their surroundings for prey.
This sonar is so effective
that the hammerhead shark is far more likely
to find prey in their hideouts
than any other kind of shark.
The reason being its head
which has many advantages.
Ampullae of Lorenzini are organs
that can read electromagnetic fields
and they are arranged in three
different centres on
the shark's head.
This helps the hammerhead
locate the heartbeat of its prey
much easier and faster than its rivals.
Its eyes are located
at the two ends of the head.
As a consequence, the hammerhead has
an advantage over other species
as he has a wider field of vision
for a better perception of his environment.
The cephalofoil of the hammerhead shark
doesn't only contain
the Lorenzini ampullae.
It is said that the wider head
improves its ability to manoeuvre
and also increases his perceptual field.
The eyes and the large nasal passages
are located on the outside of the head,
so that their sensory organs are
able to detect prey in a wider field.
In addition to these great senses,
the hammerheads are also
equipped with a very large dorsal fin.
An advantage for quick navigation.
But, too often, their fins
fight the final battle.
They are high on top of the list
for shark fin traders.
Experts estimate that the species
of scalloped hammerheads
and smooth hammerheads,
are dying at a rate of one
to almost three million animals per year,
due to the fin industry.
The hammerhead shark young are born
in the shallows of coasts and in bays.
They regularly fall victim to fishing nets,
caught in droves
when in close proximity to the coast.
In open water,
long lines, bottom nets, and trawls
tend to interfere with the hammerheads.
Hammerhead sharks are
valuable fish in longline fishing.
They are caught as,
so-called, "unwanted" bycatch.
But are often, illegally,
a very welcome catch.
And increasingly substituting
overfished species such as tunas.
Conservationists have been fighting
for a regulation of shark fisheries,
and a ban on shark finning.
Success is not yet in sight.
Humans are not the only ones
who consider the hammerhead sharks
a part of their diet.
Consequently, the hammerhead
must always be on guard
when larger creatures are around.
This giant, proud and spectacular creature
is moving towards the sharks.
Growing up to 50 feet in length,
the whale shark
can be particularly intimidating.
The hammerhead indeed appears scared,
and so makes quick its escape.
But this panic is not necessary.
This giant is a rather harmless fellow.
Just like basking sharks
and megamouth sharks,
the whale shark filters plankton
and similar organic material from the water.
Even though small mackerel or young tuna
are sometimes found
in the stomachs of whale sharks,
they are, in fact,
completely harmless to humans,
despite their colossal stature
and predatory appearance.
Although the whale shark
is the largest of all living fish,
it is also the most peaceful.
It glides through our oceans
with his 20 tons,
as peaceful as clouds through the sky.
Any person who has been
lucky enough to encounter a whale shark
will describe
it as a breathtaking experience.
Most people are
amazed by their sheer size alone,
but they also boast
an amazing pattern on their skin
and move elegantly and gracefully
through the water.
Their large fins
seem to swing in slow motion,
and their whole presence
is an amazing spectacle to behold.
However, the whale shark
with its great size and presence
is not the predator it might appear.
It is, in fact, just another creature
on a long list of endangered species,
and is, so, not ranked in our list
for the world's most dangerous predators.
The night transforms everything above water,
but this change is even more apparent
beneath the water's surface.
Whilst humans tend
to sleep during the night,
many of our dangerous predators
are vivacious at this time of day.
There are, of course,
lots of reasons to hunt at night.
The most important reason
is that most of the prey fish
are inactive at night.
This makes them easy targets to catch.
Furthermore, sharks are not able to sleep,
at least not in the way
we human beings are familiar with.
Sharks sleep in a way that
they switch off all unnecessary functions,
and just float slowly through the water.
A similar pattern
can be observed in dolphins,
who only sleep with one half of the brain.
Their slow floating
is important for their survival,
because their breathing
is based on the water's movement
through the shark's gills.
To catch as much prey as possible
many sharks go hunting at night.
Here their amazing sensory organs
are very helpful for finding their prey.
Whilst most fish, and other sea dwellers
are in sleep mode or in slow motion,
sharks are out on the prowl
trying to fill their bellies.
This shark certainly commands respect
in the area when he's on the prowl.
The reef's more modestly sized fish
do their best to hide,
but this shark doesn't give up easily,
and continues the hunt for his next victim.
Gliding and darting close to the reef.
The movements of these predators
are graceful, yet aggressively focussed.
Their appetite is never fully satisfied
and their search for food is a pursuit
which fills their every living moment.
Let us make use
of the dark and quiet of the night,
and accompany our friends for a while
during their night dives
and their search for food.
This parrot fish has the ability
to alter his skin pigmentation
in order to blend into the background
making him harder for predators to spot.
The shark's quest for food isn't over,
and he continues to stalk the waters
for his next meal.
The variety to be observed
in the ocean is incredible,
and some fish bring
a welcome glimpse of beauty
to this sometimes savage
and unforgiving food chain.
And now we have come to the three finalists
in the battle for the title of
our oceans' top predator.
The tiger shark, the bull shark
and the great white shark.
The tiger shark
can reach up to 18 feet in length.
That's almost as tall
as three basketball players
put on top of each other.
But the tiger shark is a proper heavyweight.
Tipping the scales at almost a ton,
he can be as heavy as 30 reef sharks.
The tiger shark's home is the lndo-Pacific,
especially Oceania,
but also The Bahamas
near the Gulf of Mexico.
He is feared by his
victims and competitors, alike,
when moving through his territory.
When a diver meets a tiger shark,
he's instantly fascinated by its size
and its fearsome stature.
People tend to fear this particular predator
because it enjoys being near
beaches and around murky waters.
Thus, encounters with
swimmers and surfers are bound to occur.
It has an incredible nose
that is capable of smelling blood
even from miles away
if the current is right.
The tiger shark has small pits on the snout.
It holds electroreceptors
called ampullae of Lorenzini
which enable him to detect electric fields,
although it's a lot weaker
than the hammerhead's Lorenzini ampullae.
The tiger shark never intentionally
seeks to attack humans.
But he is still known as
the vampire of the sharks
because as soon as it gets a taste for blood
it gets into a blood rage.
These sharks have even been known to eat
waste in the water when they are in a rage.
With theirjaws
they can break the shells of turtles.
Additionally, the tiger
shark has no difficulty
in attacking extremely
large creatures.
It doesn't even flinch
from the giant manta ray,
which can be up to 19 feet wide.
The tiger shark can be a real killer,
and that is why it's in third place
of our competition,
Underwater Predators.
The bull shark occupies the second place
in the competition for
the most dangerous animal in the ocean.
The label "bull" is
very appropriate in this case.
This shark, when it is in a rage,
can be the most aggressive
of all sea creatures.
That's because of the shark's
enormous testosterone level,
and because they
can be found in brackish water
in rivers far away from the ocean.
This, combined with their
bite force of up to 6,000 Newtons,
means there is nothing which can
compete with the bull shark.
Along with the
white shark and the tiger shark,
the bull shark is among those shark species
responsible for the most attacks on humans.
The international Shark Attack Files
of the Florida Museum of Natural History
describe 91 unprovoked attacks
and 26 deaths since 1950.
It is believed that many of the killings
that are attributed to the white sharks
have actually been carried
out by bull sharks.
The confusion is not surprising,
because, first of all,
the two species look quite similar,
and, secondly, it is unlikely that
anybody would remain calm enough
whilst being attacked
by a lightning fast bull shark
to remember the
specific characteristics of the attacker
and report it afterwards.
A bull shark usually enjoys
spending time in the shallow water
near shores and in river mouths.
Even in a calm sea,
underwater visibility is greatly limited
due to swirling sand.
These conditions are perfect
for this lightning-fast killer,
whose sensory organs have fully adapted
in order to hunt in complete darkness.
It's virtually tailored diving suit
is a great advantage
when it comes to hunting.
Its skin is studded
with millions of small teeth,
which greatly reduce frictional resistance
and help the shark swim faster.
In Africa, Central America
and South America,
the bull shark can even be found
far into the heartlands,
in lakes and rivers
such as Zambezi, Mississippi, Amazon,
and lsabel lake.
This means that not only does
it dwell in brackish saltwater,
but also in pure freshwater.
This wide and flexible hunting territory,
enables the bull shark to
adapt to changing environments.
Because of this incredible ability to adapt,
a population of bull shark was
even found in the Nicaragua lake.
This flexibility is
what has enabled the
bull shark species to
survive for so long.
The bull shark is a huge heavyweight,
growing up to 13 feet in length
and weighing over 660 pounds.
When attacking prey,
it is confident and aggressive.
But don't be too afraid.
Bull sharks mainly feed on mussels,
rays, crabs, bonefish and other sharks.
Humans are certainly not on their menu.
And now we come to
the undefeated king of the sea.
The peak of evolution,
the absolute fighting machine.
It is, of course, the great white shark.
Feared by humans, more than any other form,
hundreds of legends and stories
have emerged about this wonderful species
of the world's oceans.
And that's no wonder.
If you happened
to come across a great white shark,
it would be etched in your memory forever.
Whether it be near the water's surface,
or deep beneath the waves,
it is clear that these animals
are well honed killing machines.
Their impressive stature
and confident movements, alone,
are usually enough to show
the other creatures who the boss is.
But let's take a look at the great
white shark a little more closely.
The great white shark
with its length of 21 feet
is not only among the largest, but also
among the heaviest predators on earth.
The most impressive feature
of the great white is its biting power,
which measures around 18,000 Newtons.
Ten times stronger
than the biting power of a lion.
This gives the great white shark
the most powerful bite in the animal world.
The great white shark
owes its name to its white belly.
Its white belly and the dark back
act as camouflage for the creature.
The colour mixture on the skin of the shark
make it extremely difficult
for it to be detected by its prey.
This makes it possible for the shark
to attack at close range.
White sharks usually attack
from below and from behind.
They sneak up on their prey
until they are close enough
to spring a surprise attack,
so that the victim has
no opportunity to flee.
But speed is only one component
of the shark's hunting success.
The great white's teeth are the main reason
for its recurring victory sprint.
Humans' fear of sharks
existed far before the movie, Jaws.
In the 16th century
the English captain, John Hawkins,
caught a huge shark,
most probably a great white shark,
which resulted in a huge wave of anxiety
when it was presented in London.
Back then, organs from other animals
such as rhino tusks or snake tongues
were attached to these creatures.
Of course these organs were not real,
but it helped fuel people's feelings
of fear and anxiety towards sharks.
This fear and panic resulted in various
horror stories, fairy tales and myths
about the great white shark.
Considering his horrifying appearance,
he is the perfect
inspiration for wild fantasies.
The fear that humans feel about this animal
is mainly based on its bite force
and its razor sharp teeth.
The teeth of the great white shark
stand in several rows.
The great white looks
to put these teeth to use
by patiently waiting
for a vulnerable animal to attack.
These are inherited
from the extinct megalodon,
a shark that lived 1 .6 million years ago.
This giant was the largest predator
to ever inhabit the earth's oceans.
Compared to the megalodon,
the great white appears
to be the size of a goldfish.
If 18,000 Newtons seemed impressive,
the megalodon had 180,000 Newtons
of biting power.
When a great white shark attacks,
it ambushes its prey
and attacks it by biting with the lowerjaw
and then the upper.
It shakes its head back and forth,
tearing off large pieces of meat,
swallowing them whole.
A great white shark
has up to 300 teeth at any one time,
and the great white may grow and use
more than 20,000 teeth in its lifetime.
Imagine how easily
we can chew a piece of steak.
Now imagine what we could do
with 20 times more strength.
Additionally, the great white's teeth
are extremely sharp
and can rip all their prey into pieces.
They can easily bite anything in two,
not just bones and cartilage,
but even entire wooden ship planks.
But, although the great white shark
could be every diver's nemesis,
he is actually a very intelligent giant.
Presenting this fish as
a brainless, bloodthirsty monster
only proves humans' ignorance and fear.
Sharks and their ancestors
have swum through the oceans
for more than 450 million years.
Because of their amazing skills,
they haven't needed to change
for all that time.
Only a few prehistoric animals
still survive today.
For example, crocodiles, turtles and sharks.
After so many years on this planet,
sharks outnumber most other animals
and have developed to become
the most lethal hunters that we know of.
These voracious hunters take
their own important place in nature, though.
Sharks regulate the sea's
natural food chain.
Without them, this delicately balanced
food chain would be disrupted,
and some species could become extinct.
There is nothing more natural
than the hunting nature of a shark.
Although humans
are not naturally part of a shark's diet,
we sometimes see ourselves
as victims of intentional shark attacks.
These attacks are, however,
due to our carelessness.
There are only a few attacks
that happen every year.
The true tragedy is that
people close their eyes to the truth.
Longline fishing has led to the death
of countless rare and interesting
underwater species.
Many deepwater fish are also at risk
of being caught
unintentionally by fishing trawlers.
It is not only the fishing industry
which is responsible for
threatening the extinction of sharks.
The main threat is
how carelessly humans treat nature.
The human race's
insatiable pursuit of money and power
has led to irreversible damage
to the earth's finite supply
of natural resources.
This, coupled with humans'
lazy attitudes towards conservation,
could spell disaster
for some of the earth's natural species.
If we want our planet
to continue being inhabited
by such a rich and vivid
diversity of species,
we must start to show
greater respect for mother nature, today.
And this includes showing
renewed respect for sharks.