Ancient Aliens s12e06 Episode Script

The Science Wars

1 JARED COLLINS: I cannot wait to see this.
TSOUKALOS: Pretty amazing.
COLLINS: Waiting for a long time.
I mean, it's almost unheard of.
I have never seen one in person.
That is freaky.
It's odd, right? NARRATOR: Are extraterrestrial artifacts being dismissed by scholars? TSOUKALOS: This object had a date of 140 million years.
NARRATOR: Is our scientific process flawed? DAVID CHILDRESS: Scientists are far too quick to put a period at the end of the sentence and this is a problem.
NARRATOR: Will we be forced to rewrite our history books? DAVID WILCOCK: The findings are undeniable.
We are not alone.
Extraterrestrial, human-like groups have been visiting us all along.
Looks amazing.
NARRATOR: New York City.
February 2017.
At New York University, Giorgio Tsoukalos meets with art collector Jared Collins, who is in possession of a 2,000-year-old elongated skull.
That is fantastic.
NARRATOR: The skull is incredibly well-preserved and Jared is having it tested at the university to find out if it might possibly contain abnormalities that indicate it is something other than human.
He agreed to meet Giorgio outside of the Anthropology Lab for a first look at the skull.
So, how did this come to be in your possession? COLLINS: Well, it's not actually mine.
It is on loan to me.
Me and one of my colleagues contacted a museum and we asked them, "Do you have an elongated skull in your collection?" And they said they have just one, this one.
TSOUKALOS: And have they told you anything about it? - COLLINS: Actually - TSOUKALOS: Like the provenance? COLLINS: Strangely, this has been in storage for decades.
They have never tested it.
They had very little information on it.
They know it's absolutely Paracas.
TSOUKALOS: So, this skull was found - in the Paracas region of Peru.
- That's right.
But no real modern testing has ever been done on this.
Oh, this is amazing.
So, let's go, right? Okay.
NARRATOR: NYU Professor of Anthropology Dr.
Todd Disotell agreed to conduct a forensic evaluation of the elongated skull.
I've seen casts; I've never seen one in person.
- Okay.
- Wow.
That is freaky.
I mean, I just can't come up with another term.
I love that your first reaction is that it's freaky, 'cause I agree with you.
Well, I mean, look at it.
That's TSOUKALOS: It's-it's quite bizarre.
TODD DISOTELL: I can see that this is a relatively young individual.
And how did you determine that, for example? Well, so, by looking at the teeth.
We have some deciduous, or some baby teeth, remaining.
It doesn't yet have its third molar, which typically comes in around 18 years old or so.
So, I-I would guess that this is somewhere maybe 12 to 14 years old.
Really? DISOTELL: Um, let me just, uh, move it over - to the sterile bench surface.
- Mm-hmm.
So, it's very fascinating.
- Besides the shape.
- (all chuckle) The sagittal suture looks like it has completely fused.
If it's an adolescent, maybe 12 years old, isn't that quite young to have a-a fusion so DISOTELL: It is, but - I'm holding it, I'm looking at it.
-COLLINS: Yeah, yeah.
DISOTELL: And it's just been completely obliterated.
NARRATOR: The sagittal suture is the seam where the two parietal bones of the skull come together.
Although the markings may be faint due to fusing over time, all human skulls are expected to have some evidence of this feature, so it is curious that this skull does not, nor do the skulls of a number of other mysterious specimens that have been collected and examined by various experts.
One of the great enigmas of planet Earth is that all over the world we find skeletons with people having these elongated skulls.
NARRATOR: For centuries, various native cultures have engaged in the ritual practice of artificially elongating their skulls by tightly wrapping the heads of their children through infancy.
However, these skulls still feature evidence of the cranial sutures.
CHILDRESS: You also have the whole speculation of why people were doing the head binding and the artificial elongation anyway.
Why were they doing that? They wanted to have these elongated skulls and to them it represented the elite, the gods, the rulers.
And you have to wonder if there was a race here on Earth with these elongated heads and were they extraterrestrials? Okay, let's move on to extracting some tooth and bone powder to get DNA out of that.
- Okay.
- Yeah.
NARRATOR: In order to obtain the needed genetic material from the artifact, Dr.
Disotell will need to remove a tooth and drill into it to extract the samples.
The analysis of the material will determine the sex, ancestral lineage of both the father and the mother, and any DNA anomalies when compared with the current human genetic database.
Looks pretty good.
So, we will pack this up and send it off and in four to six weeks, they should have the result.
TSOUKALOS: Four to six weeks, okay.
Thank you very much, really appreciate your input on this.
- DISOTELL: Take care, gentlemen.
- You got it.
-Thanks a lot.
NARRATOR: For hundreds of years, researchers have been confronted with numerous scientific anomalies.
But traditional science is often intolerant of evidence that doesn't fit neatly within accepted frameworks.
Because of these prejudices, could we be missing a greater truth about mankind's origins? TSOUKALOS: I think scientists need to look at these things, and instead of just dismissing it offhand right away, to be like, wait a second.
Maybe we are not the first.
Maybe another civilization did exist.
Perhaps there is an extraterrestrial connection.
Because clearly we have a mystery there and everybody's looking the other way.
NARRATOR: Glen Rose, Texas.
This rural, southern town has a population of only 2,500, but may hold one of the most incredible archaeological artifacts ever found.
At the Creation Evidence Museum is an ancient hammer known as the "London Artifact," named after the central Texas town where it was discovered in 1936.
The hammer itself was found in the Travis Formation.
It's a concretion of sandstone.
And it usually takes about a 140 million years for this to form.
That would put it at 140 million years old.
NARRATOR: Mainstream scientists contend that the first modern humans emerged only 200,000 years ago.
But if so, how is it possible that such an artifact exists? The hammer was scientifically analyzed in the 1980s by two independent labs, the Creation Science Foundation based in Australia and the Batelle Memorial Laboratory in Columbus, Ohio.
Incredibly, both labs concluded that the hammer could indeed be over 100 million years old.
Part of the handle, actually, is starting to go through a process called coalification.
It's where you have inorganic material and organic material changing into coal.
This is something that just simply can't happen in the span of, say, a hundred years.
Like most people saying, "Oh, this is nothing more "than a hammer that was left behind by a would-be prospector from the mid-1800s.
" NARRATOR: In addition to coalification, the handle of the hammer shows signs of petrification.
This process of the organic wood being replaced by mineral crystals takes millions of years.
Test results concluded that the material on the hammerhead consisted of 96.
6% iron, 2.
6% chlorine and less than one percent sulfur.
Incredibly, this material contained no carbon to indicate modern manufacturing.
JEFF WILLIAMS: When we were making steel for tools, part of the process is to use a blast furnace to remove carbon out of it completely, but we always have about point two to two percent left over.
There's always a carbon signature on our steel, but there wasn't any carbon whatsoever that was found in this particular material.
TSOUKALOS: This object may be as old as 140 million years.
And obviously, that's a crazy proposition if you think that modern-day archeology suggests that we've only been around for about 10,000 years, you know, creating stuff with our own hands.
So, this falls into the category of out of place artifacts.
Artifacts that shouldn't exist.
NARRATOR: If the London Hammer really dates back to over 100 million years, as the data suggests, this find would have to fundamentally reshape our understanding of human development on Planet Earth.
But ancient astronaut theorists suggest there is another, much more substantial relic of the ancient world that is far older than mainstream archaeologists propose: the Great Pyramid of Giza.
NARRATOR: Giza, Egypt.
Here, on the west bank of the Nile, stands the oldest of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World: the Great Pyramid.
According to accepted history, the Great Pyramid was built around 2500 BC as a tomb for the Pharaoh Khufu.
However, the dating of the pyramid and its association with Khufu is based entirely on evidence discovered in May of 1837 by British explorer Richard Howard Vyse.
Colonel Vyse, um, basically used, um, gunpowder NARRATOR: Since stone cannot be carbon-dated, and no other inscriptions, except for the Pharaoh's official monogram, were found on the pyramid, this date has stood relatively unchallenged.
However, new evidence that has been found in Colonel Vyse's personal journal has researchers questioning his discovery.
Some have even suggested that he may have forged the name of Khufu himself.
NARRATOR: After the contradicting evidence was exposed, in 2014, two University of Dresden archaeology students smuggled a sample of the paint used in the King Khufu markings and had it analyzed by a German laboratory.
The sample was too small for radiocarbon dating, but the technicians were able to determine something shocking: the pigment was not painted onto the original limestone blocks, but a later plaster repair.
This finding suggests that the cartouche was not original to the pyramid construction, but added at a much later date.
Colonel Vyse had spent nearly $1.
3 million on his expedition to uncover truths about the Great Pyramid.
Is it possible that in his desperation to find something, he did the unthinkable and forged the cartouche of Khufu onto the chamber wall, thereby establishing an inaccurate date for the structure? Interestingly, this is not the only evidence contradicting the dating of the Pyramid and the entire Giza Complex.
A seventh century BC text known as the Inventory Stela, unearthed by archaeologists in 1858, details repairs made by Pharaoh Khufu, including work on the Sphinx.
NARRATOR: Could the dating of the entire Giza site be wrong? In 1992, Boston University geologist Robert Schoch created a stir among Egyptologists when he suggested that, based on the evidence of water erosion at the Sphinx enclosure, he would date the site to approximately 10,500 BC.
SCHOCH: Immediately, without even seeing my evidence, they start going, "It doesn't go back that far.
" I was talking about real evidence, real science, which they simply did not want to hear, because it did not fit their preconceptions.
NARRATOR: Like the Sphinx, is it possible that the Great Pyramid is also far older than Egyptologists are willing to admit? But if so, just who built it? According to Arabian writers Ibrahim al-Maqrizi, the Great Pyramid was not constructed by Khufu, the Great Pyramid was constructed long before the Great Flood by a king with the name of Surid.
And then, the old Arabian writers clearly say Surid is the same figure which the Hebrew society calls Enoch.
WILLIAM HENRY: Enoch was taken up into the heavens by the archangel Michael.
He was told by the angels of a coming cataclysm and he was instructed to build the Great Pyramid as a repository for the knowledge that he not only learned in Heaven, but all the earthly knowledge as well.
Perhaps these were otherworldly beings described as angels.
Maybe everything we know about Egyptology is wrong.
And we have to go back and, and open up our imagination to the possibility that there's another explanation that in fact involves the assistance of extraterrestrials in the creation of the Great Pyramid.
NARRATOR: In November 2015, researchers at Giza scanned the Great Pyramid using thermal cameras, and found two anomalous areas.
They submitted a request to the Department of Antiquities to do a more formal investigation in hopes of locating what they believe might be hidden chambers.
As scientists continue to discover new finds at the site, might they stumble upon the evidence that supports the ancient accounts? After all, this has happened before, with the unearthing of a once mythical land.
NARRATOR: Hisarlik, Turkey.
This small village is the site of one of the most sensational discoveries of the 19th century: the legendary city of Troy.
The city was the infamous location for the Trojan War described in the classic Greek epic The Iliad.
Prior to its discovery by amateur archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann, Troy was considered to be a mythical location.
Heinrich Schliemann, a German businessman and pioneer, read Homer's Odyssey and The Iliad and he became convinced that Troy existed somewhere in Turkey, where it's placed within the story.
So he went out to Turkey and he asked the locals out there what they knew about the legends.
And they eventually pointed him in the direction of a huge mound.
So here he dug, and he found the lost city of Troy itself.
NARRATOR: In addition to Troy, other cities that were previously relegated to the realm of mythology have also been discovered to be real.
The Mediterranean Sea.
A group of divers working off the Egyptian coast near Alexandria discovered the submerged ruins of statues and even entire temple complexes.
One instance of the discovery of something that we thought was legendary was the discovery of Heracleion, Thonis, near Alexandria.
We had read about this in Greek myth and Greek histories.
We had no evidence for it.
And then, one day, it gets discovered.
NARRATOR: Dating back to the seventh century BC, Thonis, or Heracleion, as it was known to the Greeks, was cited in ancient myths as a major trading post for the region.
JONATHAN YOUNG: For a long time.
Heracleion in Egypt was in many stories, but had not been found until the year 2000.
In India, in the year 2001, something similar happened.
The Mahabharata tells of the time Lord Vishnu built a great fortified city, Dvaraka.
It was thought to be an imaginary place and then, it was discovered.
And before that, in the first half of the 20th century, there is another example.
In the Bible, Joshua fought the Battle of Jericho, but we didn't know if there was a Jericho until it was discovered by archeologists.
This lets us know that there is more information in myth than we might have thought.
NARRATOR: But of all the places on Earth that were thought to be mythological, the one that has inspired the most fascination, and has proven the most elusive, is not a city, but an entire continent: Atlantis.
As described by Plato in the fourth century AD, Atlantis was the home of a highly advanced civilization which mysteriously disappeared into the ocean thousands of years ago.
While mainstream scholars continue to dismiss Atlantis as nothing more than a fanciful myth, there are many who believe Plato's account was based on a very real place.
But if Atlantis, like other formerly mythical locations, were discovered, would it offer proof of extraterrestrial contact with early humans? Dunedin, New Zealand.
February 2017.
Scientists at New Zealand's top geological institute, GNS Science, announce the discovery of a lost continent, one that sunk into the ocean millions of years ago.
They dub the landmass "Zealandia," as it extends directly under New Zealand.
Although it is almost entirely underwater, it fits the definition of a continent as it consists of an intact piece of crust that is distinctly different from the ocean floor, and clearly separated from Australia.
This was a shocking discovery, because they thought the number of continents on Earth had been basically fixed.
Now, this one looks like it could have been another continent, where perhaps human beings dwelled.
And if it was, this could certainly rewrite a lot of history books.
NARRATOR: Could this be the lost continent of Atlantis? Ancient astronaut theorists say that it is a distinct possibility.
There is an ongoing bias among scientists that anything from the ancient past must, therefore, be a made-up fake story, a myth.
And yet, these scientists have to look at the reality that archaeological discoveries are verifying that the actual stories have merit.
NARRATOR: New York City.
February 2017.
That's pretty amazing we were able to do this.
NARRATOR: Giorgio Tsoukalos and Jared Collins continue their scientific investigation of a mysterious 2000-year-old elongated skull.
We were able to set up a CT scan.
I mean, that's almost unheard of.
NARRATOR: Because anthropologist Dr.
Todd Disotell found this skull to be missing the sagittal suture that exists on all naturally formed human skulls, Giorgio and Jared have taken it to New York University's radiology department.
There, it will be subjected to a CT scan - Let's scan it.
- Yeah, let's see what's inside.
NARRATOR: which should reveal whether or not the skull really is missing the suture, or if it is simply not visible to the naked eye.
During the procedure, a series of computerized x-ray images are taken from 360 degrees and stacked together to form a 3-D image.
If any hairline evidence of the missing suture exists, it will show up in the scan.
TSOUKALOS: That looks amazing.
- It is incredible.
- Isn't it incredible? -Yeah.
So these are surface rendered images to allow you to see the skull.
For the sake of comparison, we have put similar images of a actual patient.
-McGUINNESS: So you can obviously see the teeth, the orbits where the eyes would sit and you can see that it's a very deformed skull.
Do you find any strange anomalies-- besides the shape, obviously? Well, there's a lot that's interesting about this.
There's a sagittal suture that runs across the top of the skull that I'm not seeing on this skull.
It's fused, but what is confounding to me is you can see the sutures in the other areas.
TSOUKALOS: And the fusing of a suture, is that something where, if we were to look closer, would we see a remnant of that suture? We can look at it this way on these images.
So you can see right here, there should be a sagittal suture right there and we're not seeing it.
There's a lot of distortion, but I'll show you.
This is what a suture elsewhere would look like, so these are the sutures, uh, elsewhere.
Have you seen many skulls that have missing sutures? I've never seen anything like this skull.
NARRATOR: Ancient astronaut theorists point out that science often has a difficult time with data-- such as the missing sagittal sutures-- that does not fit into the accepted paradigm.
And they suggest that findings that defy conventional explanation often get set aside, instead of being investigated.
Ontario, Canada.
Spring 1970.
Researchers at the Earth Sciences Department at Brock University receive a sample of wood that was found buried 150 feet underground on an island off Nova Scotia.
After scientists run carbon dating tests on the material, they place the object as being from 3000 years in the future.
Confounded, the team runs the test again, only to get the exact same results.
TSOUKALOS: Since it's an organic piece of material, they were able to date it.
But the dates that they received completely contradicted everything, because it had a date of 3,000 years into the future.
Well, how is that possible? NARRATOR: How is it that modern dating techniques can produce results that are so obviously contradictory? The basic idea behind radiocarbon dating is that radioactive carbon decays at a set rate, and you can use that to date when various animals and life-forms died and how long they've been dead.
NARRATOR: However, there are known flaws in the science.
Inorganic materials, like stone, cannot be carbon-dated.
And exposure to radioactivity can alter the dates dramatically.
JOHN BRANDENBURG: The dating may abruptly increase because of nuclear weapons going off.
It's also changed if a volcano erupts, it puts a lot of carbon dioxide in the air.
But scientists crave certainty, like all human beings, certainty and predictability.
So they tend to minimize the caveats.
NARRATOR: But if the carbon measurements can be skewed due to exposure to radiation, just how inaccurate might the dating be? Perhaps answers can be found when the process is put to yet another, even more confounding test.
NARRATOR: Irvine, California.
April 2017.
Ancient astronaut theorist Giorgio Tsoukalos is visiting the Keck Carbon Cycle Research Lab at the University of California to see firsthand how radiation can dramatically alter the results of carbon dating.
- Dr.
- Oh, hi.
Pleasure to meet you.
- How you doing? - Pleasure to meet you.
I'm here to learn about carbon dating.
Let me show you how this thing works.
- All right.
- Follow me.
John Southon is using accelerator mass spectrometry equipment to carbon date a sample of redwood that was exposed to radiation during the testing of atomic weapons in the 1950s.
The process begins by sterilizing the wood chip and then exposing it to various chemical processes to remove any contamination.
The material undergoes a combustion process and is reduced to graphite for optimal data retrieval.
Finally, the graphite is sent through an accelerated mass spectrometer to measure the rate of radiocarbon decay and generate the age of the object.
SOUTHON: Pull up a chair.
All right.
So what are we looking at here? Okay, so, this is our result here.
This is how much radiocarbon was in the samples that we measured from that redwood.
And the thing that's strange about them is that the radiocarbon age is negative, which means, at least at face value, these are from 600 years in the future.
Really? Okay.
And the explanation for that has to do with nuclear weapons testing in the atmosphere in the 1950s and 1960s.
This is amazing.
In your estimation, do you think that if an object is closer, let's say, to a nuclear testing site, that an item like that would be yielding more crazy results? If it was really close, yes.
So it would give you dates that would be the equivalent of tens of thousands of years in the future.
Well, I think that's so incredibly fascinating.
TSOUKALOS: If any object is exposed to some type of a thermonuclear event, it changes the result of the carbon dating.
So I think that it's about time for us to look at our ancient history, because what if something similar happened in our past? NARRATOR: Stories of ancient warfare involving the gods using sophisticated weapons can be found in numerous texts.
And ancient astronaut theorists have long proposed that these stories are backed up by physical evidence that can be found throughout the world.
One curious site that seems to indicate some kind of an atomic explosion is the very southwestern corner of Egypt, right up along the border of Libya.
And that area is a sandy area, but it is covered with evidence of vitrification.
That's what happens when you detonate an atomic bomb in a desert area, it turns the desert into glass.
And also at Mohenjo-Daro, which is on the border of Pakistan and India, were these lumps of glass that had been molten and melted.
And there were skeletons that were also found that were radioactive.
So the evidence shows that there was some kind of atomic detonation or atomic war in our ancient history.
BRANDENBURG: There are suggestions that there may have been some past nuclear weapon's detonation.
And if that occurred, then the carbon dating must account for that possibility.
And that would make, by the way, everything look younger in carbon dating.
NARRATOR: The oldest dates that can be measured by carbon dating go back to only 70,000 years ago, a tiny fraction of Earth's estimated six-billion-year history.
Scientists have come to rely on the fossil record to fill in the gaps, but that, too, has its limitations.
Myanmar, Southeast Asia.
December 8, 2016.
Paleontologists discover a piece of amber containing the perfectly preserved tail of a dinosaur believed by mainstream scientists to be 99 million years old.
(roaring) The specimen is shocking as it reveals that not all dinosaurs were covered in scales, as they had been depicted for more than a century.
Some actually had feathers.
But how could archaeologists have gotten it so wrong? CARGILL: One of the criticisms against the fossil record are the gaps in the record.
That is, we can see what we think this animal looked like, you know, three million years ago, and then we can see what we think it looked like one million years ago, but what happened in between? NARRATOR: Due to gaps of up to 80 million years, the fossil record is woefully incomplete, and the process of becoming a fossil itself is extremely difficult.
PETER WARD: Vertebrate bones are very difficult to turn into fossils.
We are these wonderful picnic lunches for a lot of different creatures.
Unless you fall into a water-filled mud bath, or in the ocean, leaving your bones almost anywhere is going to make sure it's never turned into a fossil.
There's life-forms that have never, probably, ever been fossilized.
This leaves room for all kinds of anomalous beings to really exist.
We may yet find fossils of nine-foot giants, and even of extraterrestrials.
NARRATOR: While conventional science remains resistant to the notion that extraterrestrial or hybrid beings have ever existed on the planet, ancient astronaut theorists believe they may be very close to uncovering definitive proof.
NARRATOR: Los Angeles, California.
April 2017.
After nearly two months, the results from the DNA test that was performed on a 2,000- year-old elongated skull from Paracas, Peru, are finally in.
To analyze the results, Giorgio enlisted the help of Dr.
Todd Disotell.
All right, Todd, you got the results? Yeah, and they're very, very interesting.
NARRATOR: Los Angeles, California.
April 2017.
All right, Todd, you got the results? Yeah, and they're very, very interesting.
NARRATOR: Giorgio Tsoukalos is online with anthropologist Dr.
Todd Disotell to receive the results of a DNA test that was performed on an elongated skull.
They did get a good, clean DNA profile from the maternally inherited DNA.
So this particular specimen is actually not found in the New World, not found amongst Native Americans, and it's typically found amongst Europeans and Middle Easterners.
In fact, the 100% match was to a Scottish individual.
This makes no sense whatsoever.
Really? In a South American skull? This is all very strange.
That could mean that people from Europe got to South America, you know, 1,500 years earlier than we currently understand that.
That's amazing.
Unfortunately, the condition of the sample did not yield any "Y" chromosome.
But that's not surprising.
There is between a couple hundred to a couple thousand times as much maternal DNA in every cell of the body.
So what does that mean? What have we not found out because of that? Well, so one, that would allow us to definitively determine the sex, and knowing who the father was would be very, very informative.
Unfortunately, we're missing that.
Do you think that a case can be made at all-- and again, this is complete speculation-- that perhaps it is not necessarily human.
Is that a possibility? Well, it's possible.
But still, we actually don't know what this is.
Since we didn't get any definitive result, obviously, a scientist always wants to try to do that.
This is extraordinary.
It still leaves open the possibility of something interesting.
Right, so I think that we have something here that definitely merits further investigation.
It's worthy of study, or opening up a new area of inquiry and some new hypotheses.
The results confirmed the fact that there is a mystery there.
First of all, we couldn't figure out who the father is of that thing.
Number two, it has European DNA.
Two things that make no sense.
And it had a missing sagittal suture.
So I do think that that is an extraterrestrial skull.
NARRATOR: Could preconceived notions concerning mankind's origins be causing scientists to overlook valuable data? Ancient astronaut theorists say yes, and suggest that the scientific community has been too quick to find answers when they should be asking more questions.
Science has built this house-- it's called the standard model-- and, unfortunately, this house has some big holes in its walls, and we hang paintings over them, basically, and we try to kind of paper those over.
We want certainty, we want everything to fit, but new knowledge always changes things.
WILLIAMS: The model of thinking in modern-day academia is that artifacts can't possibly exist outside of our chronological timeline.
They decide it's easier to simply put the pieces in that fit, and remove the pieces that don't.
CHILDRESS: Scientists are far too quick to-to put a period at the end of the sentence.
They're looking at a giant jigsaw puzzle with only a few pieces that are there.
But they're drawing huge conclusions without really seeing all the evidence.
And this is a problem in trying to reconstruct our ancient history.
WILCOCK: Science is about letting the evidence lead the investigation, drawing conclusions based upon what you find.
And the findings are undeniable: we are not alone.
Extraterrestrial, human-like groups have been visiting us all along.
NARRATOR: Are we finally entering a new age of science where we will be forced to rewrite our history books? Perhaps we are finally getting close to finding the answers to the questions that mankind has been asking for centuries.
Where did we come from? Why are we here? And are we alone in the universe?
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