How the Universe Works (2010) s07e03 Episode Script

The Interstellar Mysteries

Space between interstellar space is interstellar The interstellar space is vast The most unknown and unplanned Astronomers are now exploring this great abyss They discover amazing things Space between interstellar is busy and busy There are stray planets that are not connected to a star Cosmic rays, and interstellar gas withdrawal They have super-speed stars out there There are the greatest secrets in our universe Interstellar space is where we originated All are among the stars drsamehnour yahoo,com How the universe works "Interstellar Mysteries" We live in a small solar system On the outskirts of the Milky Way galaxy Eight planets and more than one hundred and eighty All around the sun In our solar system, the sun is the city's mayor Do what the sun wants us to do The effect of the sun extends to more Of light year in each direction Limits the limits of our solar system Somewhere there ends the effect The sun and other stars begin This is the interstellar space input Interstellar space is the region Between the star systems in our galaxy So far we know little about them We thought for a long time that space Interstellar is completely empty But it turned out to be a mistake Many things have happened there It is at the forefront of astronomy One of the biggest signs of space Between the stars came on our doorstep , October 2017 The Pan Starz-1 telescope has detected something unusual "Pan Stars" is an observatory in "Hawaii" Wiping wide sections of the sky Looking for things changing Suddenly, a visitor came up and roared through the solar system It was going at a speed of two hundred thousand miles per hour It was faster than we expected For a body in a solar system His path indicated that his orbit was not restricted to the sun It was not like any lane or any path Or any other orbit in our solar system Astronomers reached an astounding conclusion It turned out that he was not a body of The solar system travels from a distance But something came from another star I think everyone was amazed by that Our visitor is between the first star Known passes through our solar system It is the first object we ever discover He grew up outside the solar system All that we have seen, every sinner and all An asteroid has arisen within our solar system Giant giant body enters our system The sun, something I see only in dreams But I never thought it would be true "Scientists launched it" Omwa-mua Bahawian messenger from afar arrives first This object came from interstellar space to Our Solar System The main question is what is it? The shape of the body was puzzling It was shaped like a cigar, the longest of its width This is exceptional, there is no body in our system We measured it daily and it was so long "Amwa-mua" seemed abnormal It has been filled with the imagination of scientists What we should remember about scientists is that we are still Human beings, we read science fiction and our fantasies I admit that when I first heard about him "Once my thought went to" Rama "From the story of Arthur C, Clarke" An appointment with Rama It was a long space ship that came from another star He reminded me of some of our designs for interstellar spaceships Which must exceed its width To reduce interstellar gas friction "Could be" Amwa-mua Spacecraft between stellar? Astronomers including Prof, "Avi "They took the idea seriously We decided to follow this body Using the best approaches in the world We monitor any radio transmissions from it Astronomers searched for signs of any space contact But after eight hours of listening Over many frequencies we have received nothing Unfortunately, we did not monitor any submissions A natural body, I bet all my money on it I was disappointed, I was more eager if We found evidence of space civilization There are no small green men this time Amwa-Mua "natural body" But what exactly? Observers first thought he might be guilty A snowy body with a few rocks These objects exist Away from the star and easy to extrude But the culprit transgresses this Proximity to the sun will warm To turn the snow into a gas to be a toxic effect On "Amwa-mua" did not see Astronomers have done this There was no mist around him as we expected It is guilty when the snow turns into gas It was mysterious and I think everyone watching it is an asteroid When the team tracked "Amwa-mua" across the sky There was an unexpected paradox When "Amwa-mua" crossed our solar system It was basically falling into the sun Accelerates strongly after crossing the sun before it It emerges from the solar system from the opposite direction But something strange happened when he walked away The sun did not slow down as we expected It did not slow down fast enough Amoa-mua took a boost through our solar system but how? We think the reason is the gas drop In the sense that it was issued a little of The gas was working as a rocket propulsion engine It is like a weak jet engine on the surface Give him a little bit of payment over time This weak payment reveals The true "Amwa-Mua" identity In that case he tends to be more guilty His gas emission was not enough to see him By pushing the gas out, this traveler Interstellar may travel from star to star But knowing the place of his arrival In the galaxy more difficult Knowing that "Amwa-Mua" is gassing It changes its speed and changes its path It is difficult for us to do so Amwa-mua may be safe now to get away quickly But faces the solar system Bombardment from another source between stellar It travels towards the Earth near the speed of light Cosmic rays are shots The universe engulfs interstellar space The surface of "Amwa-mua" tells us a story His journey through interstellar space The interesting thing about Amwa-mua "is his color, it's red" "I stand on a surface the same as the surface" Amwa-mua When you look around you see a cover Bright of dark color for all rocks The highest valley extends to the mountains from behind "Scientists believe that the brightness of" Amwa-mua The red comes from organic molecules that fall on it Which represent the building units of life What a wonderful thing that comes from different origins and passes In our neighborhood and owns some organic matter Gold mine may be ours In our solar system, distant objects Comets and asteroids also carry loads This happens because their surfaces are cut by cosmic rays This changes the nature of chemicals on the surface "We think the same thing happened to" Amwa-mua There was an interstellar space And the cosmic rays were buried over the ages Cosmic cosmic rays are particles High energy makes its way across the universe Space is filled between interstellar Of the cosmic rays Particles such as protons, electrons and possibly some The heaviest and most unusual particles blowing through the universe Some cosmic rays can It travels up to 99% of the speed of light Active high speed particles It takes a lot of energy To speed up anything near the speed of light Cosmic rays come from sources Many active, strong and violent in our universe Anything with a huge explosion generates cosmic rays One of the most powerful cosmic ray generators Is the death of a huge star The supernova is a high-activity explosion So active that he can Create all exciting particles When the star's fuel runs out, it collapses The star's mass collapses inside to produce a huge explosion The shock wave hits the surrounding gas Magnifying magnetic fields The particles are trapped there and confined Magnetic fields of this gas Bounce back and forth strongly ,,, is accelerating so In the end, the particles move quickly And the magnetic field can not restrain it And it is launched at a speed approaching the speed of light The cosmic rays have a mass And it is destroyed Cosmic rays are the shots of the universe The space is interstellar But we are protected Cosmic rays of space between Starry is battling with another superpower Our guard in the solar system We may think that the sun is the source of energy And the warmth of the earth, giving life only But they also protect us in ways that they do not know The sun produces a stream of particles Charged solar wind Particles run through the planets At a speed of about one million miles per hour But in the end it loses its power There is a region where solar wind slows down Make its way in that interstellar substance And eventually slows down and stops Solar wind carries the magnetic field of the sun To be a bubble around our solar system We call it the "solar envelope" and symbolizes For this giant magnetic field of the sun It basically works as a protective layer to protect us Of those cosmic rays If it does not exist, levels will increase Radiation that hits the ground So the sun really protects us from The dangerous environment of interstellar space Protect the solar envelope from most cosmic rays But some succeed in gaining access to the solar system Fortunately, the Earth also has its own defense mechanism We have our magnetic field which works on Deflection of low-energy cosmic rays We have a thick protective cover from the atmosphere Which absorbs most high-energy cosmic rays Before they had the opportunity To reach us here on the roof Cosmic rays can travel from interstellar space That changes DNA and causes diseases But without it, perhaps we have never been here Even a fraction of cosmic rays Which passes through our atmosphere to the Earth's surface May have a profound impact on the evolution of life Cosmic rays can destroy acid Nuclear device that carries life information These particles break down and change The atoms collide with cosmic rays , And mobile information changes ,, This is a boom That's what natural selection is about So we humans are strongly bound to life In interstellar space around us But space is interstellar Also larger objects Objects that can completely erase life Our solar system circulates around a center Milky Way at 143 mph In the middle of the sun, one Two hundred billion stars in our galaxy We do not live in an isolated bubble alone in the galaxy Here, we live in a cluster of other nearby stars The movement of those stars has effects Long term on our solar system , behind the planets and our solar shell The Ort cloud is located On the edge of real interstellar space Ort cloud is the remnant of the composition of the solar system Small dirty snowy bodies, mean comets The comets in the Ort cloud are very far away So that they hardly adhere to the sun She spends most of her time looking around The sun is sober in its cold depths But it is occasionally shaken Our sun moves through interstellar space As well as other stars Our sun revolves around the galaxy and corresponds Its neighbors are inevitably stars Sometimes one passes through or near the Ort cloud The attraction of the next star may shake the Ort cloud Sends rain from comets It travels through the solar system Some may collide with the ground Comets that fall into the system The solar interior must pay attention to it You may be serious about life here on Earth One of the things we do is look at the galaxy We monitor which star may be approaching Any time in the near future "With the new Space Observatory named" Gaia Astronomers watch millions of nearby stars in our galaxy They track their movement through interstellar space What is the next star that will cross Earth? It turned out we knew "There is an orange dwarf called the Glyce-710 In 2018, new data showed that Gliese-710 "in a collision course with Ort cloud" It will throw some dirt and some dust It may carry bad news for the solar system To get unwanted visitors "We were lucky to have" Gliese-710 Will not arrive 1,3 million years ago But there are other stars there There are all those stars that you see In our skies in the Milky Way disk And tend to move in the same direction At a hundred miles per second around the middle Gaia discovers stars that follow different rules They do not seem to move with the galaxy movement In turn they race through space They are quickly launched as artillery shells and move three Or four or five times other stars in the galaxy It seems to be moving away from the center Those cosmic shells know Also named super-speed stars What makes it go so fast? Some of these stars originate from star systems Two of its members burst into a greater crisis Removes the attractive association of the other star to allow him to escape Or being thrown across the galaxy in its high-speed orbit I have some super stars The past speed is darker It drips from a black hole There are trillions of black holes in the universe There are almost huge black holes in the center All large galaxies including our galaxy These monsters create Chaos on the associated stars There is a binary star system and two orbits Around the black hole in the middle of our galaxy When they approach, one falls into the hole Black and the other shoots away at high speed Those super stars glow Speed through interstellar space Its starry winds bring beauty from chaos Most of the high-speed stars we see are Giant stars are bigger, warmer and brighter than the sun They make their way through interstellar matter Its winds extend and hit with gas and dust What you see when you look at it is that The bow is as beautiful as the front wave of the ship We have pictures of them, they are beautiful beautiful patterns High-speed stars draw the universe's plate It may sound quiet, but space between The star is far from calm It is not a property, it is a wild area You can do whatever you wish In rugged galactic areas, the bad guys prevail Dozens of light years away from the sun Mysterious bodies disappear in the dark We saw only part of the material there This is the next big discovery In 2016, scientists monitored a weak source of light Infrared light 59 light years away from Earth He is darker than a star and does not revolve around a star It is only a stray planet When we think of the planet We believe that an object revolves around a star In fact, this is the current definition of the planet What if it is not about anything? We call it planets The next year he picked up Astronomers have more detailed images They found not one world but two worlds This is amazing, that body is the middle of space, if not two The stars of the two planets are orbiting each other The constellation is four times the mass of Jupiter 300 million miles from each other More than three times The distance between the earth and the sun They revolve around each other every century Do not imagine a planet Charda but two planets Two planets revolve around each other They may be two giant giants as the buyer If they were, there would be no surface But if they were old, it was lost They have enough time to cool down They may have two surfaces , We do not know, but they will be gloomy There is no nearby star to illuminate them The stagnant planets slide into eternal darkness Across the wide, cold expanse of interstellar space Not touched by light for millions of years Suppose you found yourself standing up On the surface of one of those stray planets It will be a strange sight, there will be no sun It will only be the night sky around you Imagine a dark night Lunar is here on Earth This is the level of light that exists In interstellar space Physicists believe there are billions Planetary planets in our galaxy Planet for all four stars The question is why you exist Those stray planets? Have you been alone or have been prostrated? Somehow outside its solar system? The answer holds both Some of the stray planets were formed Groups of gas that did not become stars Others formed as planets around Stars in solar systems as our system When the systems were formed Solar, were violent places Sometimes the planets crash And become one body Sometimes you miss the whole thing They stray away from each other and toss So these planets exist Her entire life is completely lonely Without a star warming it, the planets look Uncertainty places unbearable life The planet stalks alone in Space will not be good for life It's cold there, if it's a size Earth may be a frozen ball But in 2018, astronomers announced that life May harbor a moon around a stray planet There are moons orbiting Jupiter Saturn is so dense with planetary gravity It has nothing to do with the sun When those satellites deviate By the gravity of the planet The friction generates heat that makes the water liquid It is possible if the planet can Stray from keeping his moons It was probably a satellite Contains liquid ocean under its surface You do not need a star But the planet is heating up Space between the stars is not empty But it is full of unrelated objects that have no habitat You may imagine space between Asteroid as a pinball machine There are high-speed stars and rare planets There are even moons from their planets They all go out there Interstellar space is more active And life than we would imagine as illustrated He even has a pull sing Hundreds of light years away, quantities drift A vast gas and dust across interstellar space Imagine all this space between The stars are full of gas and dust Full of star formation stories Planets, we were missing a lot Scientists call gas and dust Interstellar interstellar medium It is most of the material present in the galaxy They are atoms of hydrogen and little Of helium atoms here and there The interstellar medium does not spread evenly across the galaxy It is cobbled and lumpy and there are areas of it More materials and other materials less Areas with more materials The drag is called interstellar What is the cloud between stellar only Intensive concentration of gas and possibly dust Scattered across our galaxy The interstellar clouds may spread For vast distances across the universe Some up to one million times the mass of the sun This amazes me When I look at that interstellar clouds I realize that its size is light years The interstellar clouds are more than Just pools of gas and dust It is alive We know that places where the stars are made up They are also places of star death Stars are formed when The interstellar cloud collapses Gravity pulls materials together to ignite pulp But astronomers are not fully aware of the process Understand the shape and composition of the cloud It is important to understand the star formation process Some shapes and structures are not as big Enough in some dimensions to allow the collapse of the cloud All we know about it depends on its shape So figuring out the shape is the key to understanding the process But there is a problem When we look at the universe we are We see things on the sky So we may look at the installation as the sweep between And have little information about its depth One of the biggest challenges for astronomers is Disassemble the three-dimensional shape of that drag In 2018, there was a big shift for scientists In their efforts to understand star formation 490 light-years from Earth "There is an interstellar cloud called Mosca Similar to a fine snake This dark painting is dark The expression looks like a dark two-dimensional cloud Its a silhouette off The stars are in the background in the sky Astronomers have examined Mosca with infrared light They found out that she was singing It oscillates, creating moving waves Across that cloud back and forth Dynamic fluid waves are called Magnetism which looks fantastic The team converted the waves to "Musical tones for the song" Moska It turns out that when you study so you can Determine the 3D shape of that cloud Through the movement of waves across it It's like listening to The sound frequency of the machine you do not see And trying to reshape the nature of that machine The low tone tells you that Tapping for a huge machine like a cello While the high tone It represents a smaller machine like Kalkman Just as different machines produce different sounds The drag structures Different hesitate in different ways She will sing completely different songs Voices, whether to say or frequencies issued Of the cloud is a fundamental guide to its shape and composition Although the Mosca cloud looks like a line in the sky Astronomers were able to determine their stereotypical shape Not just a thread but a disk As if we see a disc standing on its own Mosca "is more like a pie than a snake" Inn did look at the pie from the side This is amazing, as if we were wearing glasses Stereoscopic for the first time and see the depth of the universe The same technology can be used To study the interstellar clouds Bring with it a lot of knowledge treasures About the structures and processes taking place there We discover that interstellar space In our galaxy is full of substances But the total number is minus It turns out that if we took all the materials Which we now see around the universe And we collected it would not equal quantity The total that we know is there One-third of the materials are missing Where is it then? To find them, we should look Behind interstellar space To the dark side Mysterious space between the Hungarian Milky Way is one trillion Galaxies in the Universe Perspective The Milky Way is a disk About 100,000 light-years away It is full of stars and lots Of planets, gas and dust But where does our galaxy end? Where do the other galaxies begin? Installation as our shop has no break point They become less dense and gradually fade away Whenever we move into space between the Hungarian , galaxies have huge gaps Space between Hungarian But as the space between The asteroid is not empty New research shows that it holds a great puzzle answer We know the amount of normal material Emerging from the Big Bang We can look around today and count All the regular items we see The problem is that they are not equal There are speeches by galaxies in our universe Not huge enough About a third of the ordinary matter in the universe is missing There is an ordinary substance that is not connected to galaxies Where is it then? Assume a theory about the place of those Ordinary Lost Article They float out of our galaxy in hot gas Scientists believe that this hot gas May exist in long filaments between galaxies But the gas is thin and too widespread to detect Until now In 2018, astronomers studied a star The distant matte pseudo is called 1 AS 1553 The false star exists when the black hole feeds It releases light and we can see it across the universe The stars are false Four billion years until you reach us But observing the observers is something strange Something absorbs light It passes through the universe Accused ,, hidden threads of gas Suspended in intergalactic space These results assume that part A great matter of ordinary matter in our universe Not confined to galaxies Do not live within the city limits But live in long flows Thin connecting galaxies together , by heating its shock waves to millions of degrees Those threads of gas may extend across the universe The article is interpreted She was missing all that time This opens an interesting question Whether it is there And failed to accumulate in the galaxies? Or have they started inside the galaxies and pushed out? We do not know explicitly Space between interstellar , and now the inter-Hungarian space More life than we thought , of the stray planets , to pull the singer gas Space between the stars stranger than Imagination, but we are now beginning to cut his story Because there is so much We are ignorant of interstellar space Making it more important to explore Try and find out what is there Exists in space between The stars are more than we know This is the beauty of exploration The beauty of knowledge is expanding Always presented there always Who knows what might be there too And what may be hidden in the darkness between the stars