The World at War s01e01 Episode Script

A New Germany (1933 - 1939)

For this road, in one day of Summer of 1944, the soldiers had arrived.
Not deferred payment nobody here now.
They had been only some hours.
When they had left, the community that it lives a thousand years here, had perished.
We are in Oradour-sur-Glane, in France.
In the day where the soldiers had arrived, the people was congregated.
The men had been taken for garages and granaries.
The women and the children they had been led by this road e lead for this church.
Here, they had heard the detonations, when the men had been fusilladed.
Later, they had also been deceased.
Weeks later, many of that they had also killed them had been died.
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in combat.
Oradour never was reconstructed.
Its ruins are a memorial.
Its capital punishment represents of thousand of others in the Poland, in Russia, the Birmânia, China.
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in a world in war.
The World in War New Germany 1933 - 1939 Germany, 1933.
An enormous and blind enthusiasm it fulls the streets.
National-Socialism gains the power, in a country tortured over the unemployment, amargurado for the loss of territory, demoralized for the weakness politics.
Perhaps either the new start.
The majority considers the nazistas a little obsessive nonsenses and, but perhaps the time of the thought it has finished.
Adolf Hitler did not take the power.
They had offered it, when its to be able of vote was in decline.
The politicians who had made of Hitler chancellor had said:we contract "it".
The main figure of them was the old president von Hindenburg.
The socialist Communists and they had tried to face Hitler with calm: "This will not last", had said.
The anti-nazistas conservatives if they tranquilizaram with the fact of that its old leader of the war, Hindenburg, still state head, to be known by to disdain the mediocre handle.
Number 9082, Paul von Hindenburg.
Already it is? With false solemnity, Hitler and its sequidores they had directed it foot to the cerimónia of the opening of the parlamento.
The force of the party was constructed from the revolutionary violence.
They had never imagined that they could to arrive legally at the power.
When the old building of Reichstag caught fire mysteriously, Hitler grasped the chance stops to suspend all the civil freedoms.
Its followers badly they could believe its luck.
The old Hindenburg, symbol of an apparent continuity, she was still president, when they they had transformed the government into being able, with acts of pretense legality.
In March, when the Reichstag allowed that Hitler governed without Parliament, Hindenburg did not make commentaries.
The legal chancellor adopted the paper of the legal dictator.
Hitler proclaimed new Germany.
E had the intention of that it lasted a thousand years.
New Germany started to surround its enemies:Communists, socialist, inopportune journalists, members of the house of representatives of the Reichstag.
In the concentration camp of Orienburg, to the north of Berlin, the conditions, the principle, were but hard but not brutais.
At this time, the fields were managed for the Sections of Assault, the SA.
They maltreated more of what they assassinated.
Since the beginning, Hitler advanced with the campaign against the Jews.
As SA had organized boycotting to the pertaining store the Jews.
The true reason was to encourage the German people to think and to act in way anti-semitic.
The exterior world was horrified.
But those existed, including Jewish Germans, that they thought that the campaign anti-semitic was workmanship of extremistas, something with that Hitler would finish, as soon as more was felt safe.
It would also go to give itself a cultural revolution.
The German culture would be purged of it stains Jewish and bolchevista.
The books had been played to the flames.
Many of they had played that them they were pupils and professors.
E to the measure that fagulhas went up, the intellectuals ran away, writers and scientists, to offer its talentos to the Europe Occidental person and America.
One hundred years before, Heine, German poet of Jewish ancestry, whose books were now played to the flames, it informs: "Where if they burn books, they will finish if burning people.
" Some of most zealous followers of Hitler they had found new ways to show loyalty.
They had been married or they come back if to marry under the rules of the nazista ritual.
The nazistas had the support bulk of the unemployeds, but less of organized workers.
The left section of the party it wanted to initiate a movement of workers in the plants.
But Hitler followed a simpler route.
It granted to the unions the holiday of the Day of the Worker as they wanted.
In the following day, it abolished the unions.
The followers of nazism were basically of the middle class.
Storekeepers ruined for the depression, employees who had lost its savings, excuídos craftsmen for the production in mass.
These were the adoradores of Hitler.
Of this army of ruined they made part agriculturists and peasants.
Hitler signs up them during the Depression.
Now it said that its blood to them alone e was the treasure of Germany.
It approved laws granting to them ownership of its lands.
E gave bread to them.
The Treated one to Versailles in 1919 reduces the German territory drastically.
They had lost the Alsácia, Lorena and the Sarre.
The east of the Prússia was isolated for the new Polish state; the Silésia divided in two; Danzig, a city of Liga of the Nations.
For the patriots, Germany would not be free while Versailles lasted.
Hitler seemed to be the rescuer foreseen in monuments in the border: "German, never they forget what hatred stole the blind you.
They wait the hour that will avenge the bloody crime of the border.
" Except, it had who admired the way as Germany if defended.
In America, we had many reports against its new government e, many times, had caused hasty demonstrations.
Now, I can say voces that the American people, today, it knows that these histories are false and they do not have bedding.
I find that it has a new vitality here in Germany, with its great leader and chancellor, Adolf Hitler, that I admire very.
New Germany will construct for you optimum centered government of the current world.
New Germany was a set of different interests and hurts, kept together for the belt of the Socialist National Party.
E the buckle of the belt was Hitler.
The well most precious one in the Land he is our people.
E for this people, e with this people, we will battle and fight, e never we will fraquejaremos, we will never tire in them, we will never vacilaremos, we will never despair.
Alive our movement! Alive our people! In the truth, it was the only party that it promised to take off us of the abyss.
E the main idea it was that alone it would be possible if we created a nation with team spirit, with solidarity, and all making the same effort, instead of fighting due the small differences of opinion, to the external politics and the social politics, and there for ahead.
What it promised? Work and bread for the masses, the millions of workers unemployeds and with hunger.
Today, in our prosperous society, work and bread already not they mean nothing, but, at the time, they were a basic necessity e this promise, that not it would make any direction today, at the time it seemed the promise of the Paradise.
Everything this became the ideal land a prophet to say: "Levaei them it the Engaged Land.
Livraei them of the evil" Who wants that said this, it would be greeted with enthusiasm.
Clearly that it had who said: "This is a false prophet", but who could know if certain or they were made a mistake? At the time, nobody wise person.
Christmas of 1933: one year of the Reich de Hitler.
"Peace in the Land - Good will between the men.
" The concentration camps they were full, the Parliament was only one appears decorative; the political parties e the abolished unions; the Jews are of the public services; the strangled free press; the destroyed personal freedoms.
Germany lived in a permanent one emergency state.
The state of Adolf Hitler he was sovereign, exactly Almighty.
But it still felt itself threatened.
It feared its old rivals conservatives.
The army feared.
E also the sections of its party that still they were revolutionary, as the leaders of the Sections of Assault.
also the army hated the SA.
Hitler saw as to conciliate the generals e to clean its way.
The head of the SA was one of its old comrades, Ernst Röhm.
In 30 of June of 1934 Röhm was imprisoned.
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and died.
The commanders of the SA.
e more than one hundred others they had been removed of its beds e also died.
The murder blew up for all Germany.
The assassins were new force in Germany, the SS, the bodyguards of Hitler, they became its now private agreement of terror.
Goering gave a conference in the Ministry of the Propaganda.
Goebbels was Minister of the Propaganda, but it had been with Hitler, therefore Goering detestava it e could have grasped the chance of if exempting of it, being in Berlin.
Goering gave the conference for the foreign press.
Before this, the communication was cut for the foreign countries.
Goering entered and said: "I know that vocês they like histories", it used the word in English.
"Therefore I have one good history for vocês.
" E described as in previous night and in this morning it and Hitler had acted against not conforming forces, as much of the Right as of the Left, that Röhm had been fusilladed e one second jammed revolution.
It also made a obscure reference to the general von Schleicher, that it had preceded Hitler as German chancellor.
Later it left the room, came back passed some seconds and it said: "They had said me that I was not clearly how much to the general von Schleicher.
The general von Schleicher was died this morning, when it resisted the arrest.
" it was one day very important, because one became obvious that this government, while government, if it became an assassin.
They had killed a great number of people without them to take the court.
Simply they had killed them.
E not only enemy right-handers of Hitler at the moment, not only Röhm, the head of the SA, but also other people that they considered ackward.
E had made it at the same time.
In this Summer, another rival disappeared.
President Hindenburg he died in 2 of August.
While it still breathed, Hitler abolished the president position, proclaiming Führer and chancellor, head of state and government.
E before its body esfriarr, Hitler commands usurped it of the army.
The Armed Forces had paraded to make a new oath.
When old they swore loyalty to the Constitution, now they were committed to Hitler, personally, for the name.
Interest, for God.
e for this sacred empire.
that I will obey the Führer of the empire and German people Adolf Hitler.
For the officers German, an oath was almost physically real.
Hitler them had enclosed.
Now they could not disobeys it, without disobeying to the Native land.
Interest.
Interest for God.
Interest for Adolf Hitler! Adolf Hitler.
Hitler continued in front.
In the same month, the Germans they had had that to go to the ballot boxes to approve its ascension to to be able state and governmental.
Now, the management for the threat, propaganda, fake and fraud it was functioning wonderfully.
Hitler obtained 90% of "Ya".
Four million had still voted "Nein".
Hitler proclaimed: "In next a thousand years it will not have another revolution in Germany.
" The nazistas had nailed the doctrine of the community of the people, of if learning to be German ones with the others.
The aid of Winter, the main collection of street for charity, was a symbol.
E the leaders of the party revealed comrades of the people for the cameras.
Goering revealed: a hero of the war, a man that he laughs and he appreciated the life, that it believed to be one moderadora force in the party.
Josef Goebbels, the small one Minister of the Propaganda, to who they called "dwarfed poisonous".
Its severity was feared, but respected.
The right arm of Hitler, Rudolf Hess: one appears intriguer for the masses.
The way of the nazistas to govern age to be distant, but not to seem it.
All the classrooms were encouraged to have the same meals: the soldier, the head, the workers, the banker.
The party believed the community, but the industrials continued rich.
They had financed the nazistas, when if it became probable that earned, e now its orders were submitted it without great sadnesses.
The businesses were improving quickly.
The economy was improving when the nazistas had arrived at the power.
But they had been with the credits, speeding up the recovery with an enormous program of workmanships public for the unemployeds.
Other countries, where the unemployment of the masses it persisted, they observed Germany with envy.
Only one minute, ladies and gentlemen.
Here it is something that must know.
lsto is workmanship of the Führer! It is everything what they need to know.
The unemployeds they had constructed the auto-road, the first one of the world, joining still villager Germany.
The auto-roads were also for the personal pleasure, inside of the facista notion of the "force for the joy".
E had been presented not in such a way as a transport system, but as the triumph of the national will, on to other famous projects, as new Berlin of the Führer.
Full of elegance and health, confident and cliente of its obligation and task, thus they are the happy young of our great age.
These are members of the "Faith and Beauty", predecessor of Liga of the Young Germans, feminine equivalent of Hitlerista youth.
E for measures there.
All the young they learned songs of the party, they practiced exercise, they danced and they belonged to the group.
Every year, the agriculturists and its families they were congregated in Bückeberg with Führer, at the time of the harvest.
In 1936, the ones that waited its leader arrived at a million.
It was been slow.
It always arrived been slow; it increased the tension.
Later it arrived, leaving the enthusiasm to overflow.
When passing in direction to the tribune, the masses could see it of close and until touching to it.
Deliberately, the women they were placed in the first lines.
When it went up the hillside, it did not perceive as the people they could cry out in such a way.
But when it arrived at our group, also I fell under its witchcraft, e I cried out Heil as all people.
But later, when it was very close, greeting to the right and left, pressing the hands and speaking, e also pressed my hand, I noticed that all immediately to its side they were in silence.
In first the 10 minutes it was not a good orator.
It started to heat e to try to find words.
But, in the end, he was one excellent communicator.
It.
does not know the word in English.
commanded its public e all the atmosphere if it became each histérica time.
He was interrupted, to follow the almost all the phrases, for great applauses e the women cried out.
It was as a ceremony religious in mass.
I heard the speech e I felt the atmosphere each excited time more in the hall e, per some seconds, I had the sensation, a time or another one: "That penalty I not to be able to partilhar the belief of these thousands of people, to be alone, to be against everything this.
" He was funny.
I thought:"It is saying besteiras that already I know, the besteiras that always said.
" Exactly thus, it felt that it had to be wonderful to jump for the way of the multitude in polvorosa e to be part of that they believed.
One lady of our city it was Berlin, to an anniversary party of Adolf Hitler.
When it arrived, said us: "The Führer pressed me it hand".
From then on, it was as one saint in our city.
The private life of Hitler was transferred in the Baviera, Berchtesgaden.
These images are of films caretakers of Eva Braun, the discrete young that it was with it until a death.
The Berghof came the elect ones, to take tea and to argue tactical.
Some a little bashful; genuinely close others.
The favorite flower of Adolf Hitler It is the luminous Edelweiss The favorite flower of Adolf Hitler It is the luminous Edelweiss In exactly particular, Hitler it the same had that to be that if vendia the public.
Adolf with the children; Adolf with the dogs; Adolf with a lens; Adolf with friends.
Taking a walk, as a good one Bavarian bourgeois, to the sunday.
In this close circle, Eva Braun was the natural woman, healthful, happy with its body.
The favorite flower of Adolf Hitler It is the luminous Edelweiss In Berghof, it had bodyguard good-tempered and friendly; the other colds.
Heinrich Himmler, gentleman of the SS, it came with Heydrich, its terrible and beautiful lieutenant.
In formal occasions, they appeared the guards of the SS.
They were the reality of the great tyranny centered in distant Berlin.
Briefly, its hands would be red with the blood of millions.
For this reality, Hitler the beach chair would leave, the parties and the loving one.
The car waited in the end of the stairs.
If Germany again wanted to be fort, had that to rearm itself.
A people scared for the war had that to come back to make familiar itself to weapons, to touch to them, to play with the soldiers.
Germany had that to train pilots.
The Treated one to Versailles forbids Germany to have an Air Force, therefore the league of the sports aerial it used gliders to train men, still civil officially, for the future Luftwaffe.
E the army increased for beyond of the limits taxes for Versailles, from the moment in that Hitler if became chancellor.
In secret, it tripled its force in two years.
Any foreign military attaché he could see what he was happening.
But the world nothing made of decisive e, in March of 1935, Germany announced the conscription, an army of peace time of half million of men.
The new tanks had appeared.
The first squadrons of the Luftwaffe they had flied.
The new German navy it came the way.
Hitler kept the haunted Europe.
Proclaiming extinct Versailles, it considered an armament limit.
Great-Britain, the first democracy to make a pact with the nazistas, it signed a naval agreement.
Hitler was tranquilizou.
It could be safe to turn itself for the hated borders.
One has left of the Treat one to Versailles already it had been insult.
In January of 1935, the territory of the Sarre, the small region of coalmines that she had been German before 1918, it voted in mass, and under supervision the International, to come back to Germany.
To the side, the Renânia remained a demilitarized zone.
Without any dispute, it was part of Germany, but to recoup it would be to defy the allies, above all France.
The troops had passed the bridges of the Reno in 7 of March of 1936.
In secret, the commanders they were ready if to remove case France showed fight signals.
But these signals had not come.
Colony, in the Renânia, and Germany they had expressed its relief and joy.
Part of the German honor she had been recouped.
Hitler had risky and profit.
Two years later, Austria, place of birth of Hitler, she was ready to be annexed.
The Austrian nazistas fought for Anschluss, union with Germany.
To hinder elections on independence, Hitler annexed it.
The German troops had been greeted for multitudes in she would histeria.
Vienna saw a terror against the Jews, that nor Germany had seen.
Austria became a province.
The neighbors of Germany, consternados, little firm e little prepared, one more time it swims had made.
The Tchecoslováquia it was not a German province, but an independent nation, allied of Great-Britain, of France and the Soviet Union.
In its border to the north they lived the German Sudetas.
Hitler stirred up this minority, that never it is part of Germany, to demand the union with the Reich.
The Europe was prepared for the war.
But although the Tchecoslováquia to be ready to fight, Great-Britain and France had yielded.
In Munique, September of 1938, Chamberlain, for Great-Britain, Mussolini of the ltália e Daladier of France they had signed, with Hitler, the treated one that it removed the region of the Sudetas of the Tchecoslováquia, leaving it incomplete and abandoning.
The Germans had crossed the border, received as liberating for the population sudeta.
In house, the generals German that they opposed the Hitler, to the wait that one disfigures in the Tchecoslováquia it finished with its prestige, they had given up its conspiracies, despaired.
Hitler joined it the troops in the field e made plans for the future.
The region of the Sudetas easily it was digested.
The remaining portion could be obtained quickly.
The territories diminished Czechs e the Eslováquia was abandoned.
It attacked in 15 of March of 1939.
The German troops had entered in Plague in the same day, without resistance.
The last democracy in the Central Europe it disappeared.
The Czechs never more they would trust the Ocidente.
The Ocidente already did not trust Hitler e was uncovered, finally, that it would only withhold it to the force.
In Berlin, more greetings, more veneration.
However, what they thought the ones greeted that it? Few wanted conquest wars, or they dreamed, as Hitler, with a German empire, of the Urais until the Atlantic o.
The majority thought that it was recouping what they had stolen to them e restoring, not destroying, the order and the unit of the Europe.
For these multitudes, the capacity politics of Hitler never would fail.
Others, that had been in house in this night, they feared that was entered in war, what it could destroy Germany.
But now they did not see hope in one it raises against Hitler.
They had been with the moral question: "It must be resisted a tyranny without success hope?" First, I find that it is difficult to take the decision of that if it must make something against the government.
First of everything, it is very rare.
Later, if he is extremely dangerous, as it is in a dictatorship, still more it is complicated, because all people likes its life.
Everything what it happened in them, when we lived in Germany, was gradual.
It was perhaps part in the way as Hitler managed these subjects.
The drop arrived us drop, as an anesthetic, could be said.
When something only specific E that it it made reached in them personally he is that we we discovered, of truth, what it was transferred.
In mine case in particular, I can say that me it reached personally when the Jewish doctor of my children, that it had been always, it came in our house.
He was a busy man very, but more time seemed to have each time.
I remember that a night came e was with my very sick son.
Of morning, the child was better e, when it went even so, he asked to me if I wanted that it continued to see the children.
I was tired and said: "My God, because not? E it said me that the clinic stops children who start in Hamburg it went to be destruida.
went to be dismissed e that received letters threatening that they said that if it put the hands in Aryan children, would have problems.
In November of 1938, a Jew he killed a German diplomat in Paris.
The nazistas leaders they had organized a retaliation.
Synagogs had been burnt and store Jewish pilhadas in Germany.
In this "Night of Crystal", call thus for the glass broken in the gutters, thousands of Jews had been taken for the concentration camps.
A terrible night! It wants to know as was that night? If it wants to know, I I say to it.
We were ranks all together, they had beaten them, they given them murros, e had made them to be of foot, in lines, to be counted.
Because he had been welded, I did not find this very difficult, but to who it is not tacked as it had, they beat to them soon.
E worse was when somebody grasped a strong man great e.
It said:"He does not grasp me".
"What? I cannot grasp? "and they had beaten to it.
This man soon was grasped for three people, of the SS.
They had brought a block.
It had moored it and commander of the field said: "The Israel Jew, or the Idzic Jew, I do not obtain to remember to me, it was sentenced the 25 chicotadas.
" It came an enormous man, of the SS, with a whip and it beat to it.
First, the man alone moaned a little, but later cried out:"They stop" The commander said: "What it wants to say with "They stop"? We go to start denovo".
But after more three chicotadas, the blood gushed out, they had stopped and they rubbed salt in the wounds, or pepper, I do not remember.
The man was taken dragged.
Never more the vi.
Clearly that in 1938, when the synagogs were catching fire, all we knew what it was transferred.
I remember that my brother-in-law, husband of my Lena sister, Owner of house when she left in the morning after.
Kristallnacht, Reichs Kristallnacht, Crystal night, as vocês says, it was of train for the office in the center e enters the stations of Savignyplatz e Zoologischer Garten it had a synagog e it saw that it was catching fire.
It murmured "Kulturschande", that it is an insult for the culture, our culture must have shame.
Soon the man of the front turned itself e showed the Parteiabzeichen, card of the party, and showed to it the wallet of the Gestapo.
E it had that to show documents, to give the address, and was commanded it that it was to the office of the party in the following day, to the 9 of the morning.
April of 1939: the Wehrmacht is prepared to celebrate the 50 years of Hitler.
It waits one "day of the habitual Führer" - a beautiful day.
The Führer crosses Berlin, passes under the Vestibule of Brandenburgo e goes down the Siegesallee, the avenue of the victories.
The army, of both the sides, it increased seven times in four years.
Between the 51 divisions of the Wehrmacht they are the new tanks, the instrument of the Blitzkrieg.
Although the appearances, the High Command not yet is certain that this army this soon for the war.
still.
Hitler is ready for showing the opposite to them.
The word in each colloquy diplomatics in this Summer was Danzig.
The Free City, with its population mixing of Germans and Poles, she had been separate of Germany e been under the responsibility of a commissioner of Liga of the Nations.
Danzig and the east of the Prússia they were separate of the Reich for a band of Polish territory - the Corridor.
Hitler demanded the devolution of Danzig e access to the Prússia for the Corridor.
The Poland refused.
In March of 1939, Great-Britain e France had guaranteed the borders to it.
In August, Great-Britain promised to fight if the Poland was attacked.
One more time, myths on the persecution of a German minority they had been used to defend an intervention armed.
Refugee German counted histories of the Polish brutality.
Later, I caught the stand of the baby e we cross the border with the children.
The nazista propaganda it filmed them until a exhaustion for Atualidades of the Cinema during July and August.
The plan of Hitler was to make to disappear the Poland of the map.
But this could mean war with the Soviet Union e it was not ready for this.
The Minister of the Foreign affairses Ribbentrop flied for Moscow, in 23 of August, to sign the pact full brother-Soviet.
The destination of the Poland was stamped.
The new alliance haunted the Ocidente surpreso.
Germany was rejoiced.
The conclusion of the pact reached strong the politics of the isolation.
The Minister of the Businesses Foreigners, Lord Halifax, explained: They must have read the reports on agreement between Russia and Germany, that it surprised the world.
As the life of all the nations it depends, in last analysis, of the mutual respect of the rights, e of the confidence of that each one its life can live as wants, I really wait.
This exactly, Lord Halifax.
The German people also he wants to live the life to its way! .
that it cannot be portraied, the reason can still prevail.
The Atualidades German had tried to show distracted Great-Britain, still without certezas.
The first-minister Chamberlain Downing Street leaves.
The English diplomacy it developed frantic efforts to perpetuate the injustice.
A young German left England for its country.
I had namorada with who he wanted to marry e said: "I go to risk to go me it for house.
" When I arrived the Colony, I read first periodicals German e knew soon that it had a great danger of a war.
The tone of the German press he was completely histérico e I thought that he was a crazy one.
It had come to house at that moment.
For all the Europe, the soldiers in the reserve they had received a telegram.
In the last hours of peace, the soldiers had dressed the uniforms with a tired smile.
ENRIQUE J.
LUDWIG