The World at War s01e09 Episode Script

Stalingrad (June 1942 - February 1943)

Summer of 1942.
The Germans advance again.
victorious person in France, almost victorious in the first year of Russian campaign, has new task: to fight the East of what more the Wehrmacht some time fought.
To divide Russia in two parts, in the Volga.
The World in War Estalingrado June of 1942 - February of 1943 The German plan to destroy Russia in a war lightning in 1941 it fails e the attempt causes the loss of a million of soldiers.
In 1942, they did not have enough force, exactly with the aid of its allies, to attack the long one of all the front.
Hitler turned over for South, for the Caucasus, where they were three rooms of the Russian oil.
It divided its forces in two groups: Panzer would advance first.
The plain age to surround and to destroy Soviet armies in the curve of the Don, to follow for the East in direction the Estalingrado e to isolate the Caucasus of the remaining portion of the country.
Then, in the main campaign, the other group of armies it would capture Rostov and attack the petroliferous fields to the South.
The offensive one started late.
The Summer went in advance, before 6º Army, commanded for Friedrich von Paulus, to start to dislocate itself.
The tank to the front, as it was usual.
The columns motorized of supplying the short distance.
The infantry soldiers walking heavily in the rear.
Of beginning, it seemed that the Russians if evaporated.
No matter how hard the Germans advanced, the Red Army escaped.
The Germans had not made many prisoners.
They had captured territory and cities.
The army wanted to continue stops to surround the Russians, but could not.
Diverse times, the spear tips had stopped to wait the supplying.
A soldier, Wilhelm Hoffman, he wrote a daily one.
It thought that the war it could finish soon.
"Perhaps let us be in house for the Christmas", it wrote.
The Russians had lost They could not stop pitched battles, then, they continued to withdraw.
For the Russian commanders, it was a planned and ingenious withdrawal.
For the Russian soldiers, it was a desmoralizante disbandment.
For Hitler, she was one smashing victory.
It judged to have verwhelmed the Russian army.
Thus, when the offensive one still badly it counted two weeks, it started to transfer its armies for South.
In the end of July, its troop entered in Rostov, the door for the Caucasus.
Hitler gave absolute priority now to the occupation of the petroliferous fields.
It freed its army just-formed sulista.
Army deviated 4º Panzer for the South.
It removed of 6º Army the fuel and the majority of the tank e sent also them for the South.
But it waited that 6º Army it kept the previous performance.
In middle of August, 6º Army walked in march has six weeks.
To the end of the afternoon of day 23, one column of tanks reached the Volga, to the North of Estalingrado.
It cut the fluvial traffic and it opened fire on the opposing edge.
The infantry opened trenches in line of the train and waited reinforcements.
Although the initial mission of Hitler waited now that they conquered the entire city.
Estalingrado is constructed in falésias on the Volga e was extended throughout 25 km of its edge occidental person.
The South one was the old city, with huts and building wooden; the center was modern, made of steel and cement; to the North, it had three great plants and the houses of its workers.
The city was a caused an accident land, marked for deep ravinas.
A former-líbris Soviet, which Stalin gives its name.
Stalin was determined to defend the city.
It decided not to defecate the majority of the civilians.
She said that the troop would fight better for an alive city that for a deceased.
They had been improvised antiaircraft defenses.
Half of the antiaircraft cannons of city was operated by women.
They had been enlisted diligent for a military service.
Stalin cunhara the motto: "Nor a step behind.
" The army and the policy of public security patrolled the streets.
Nor all age coercion.
It had fear of the Germans, patriotism and communist zeal.
Comrades and citizens of Estalingrado, all we must dedicate to us to the defense of ours loved city, of our homes e of our families.
we will make barricades in each street, let us transform each quarter, each block, each house, in a inexpugnável ortaleza.
" capable to take Estalingrado alone.
The reserves still they were very behind.
The Luftwaffe was called stops to help the terrestrial forces.
During three days, to leave of 23 of August, all the available airplanes in the Russian front they had attacked the city.
Practically, the only defense came of the torpedeiras motor boats in the Volga e of the batteries in opposing edge.
The city did not yield to the aerial attacks e the buildings in ruins had been transformed into ortalezas.
At the beginning of September, the Russian artillery could attack Germans of the eastern edge of the Volga.
But the Russian reserves were useless if they did not cross the river until a city.
It did not have bridges and, during the day, the boats crossed that it were under constant attack of the Luftwaffe.
While the Russians dominated the edge occidental person, they could send welded for city.
After the passage of the river, they could use the tunnels dug in the high falésias e to force the Germans to fight for each meter of land.
The armies German they had the initiative, but they were in the end of a line of precarious supplying.
All its troops were pledged in the offensive one.
It did not have reserves if something ran badly.
The Germans had launched the first ones attacks at the beginning of September.
Our battalion fights in the suburbs of Estalingrado.
The detonations are continuous.
Everywhere one sees fire and flames.
Cannons and machine guns go off of the set on fire city.
Fanatic! Hoffman, 16 of September: Our battalion and the tanks are attacking the deposit of cereals.
The battalion suffers great losses.
In the deposit they are not men, but yes demons who nor bullets nor flames can destroy.
it occurs in the interior of the deposit.
If all the buildings of Estalingrado is defended thus, none of our soldiers it will come back toward Germany.
for the deposit still it continues.
resistance in the deposit was broken.
Our troops they advance for the Volga.
We only find surrounds of 40 Russians died in the deposit.
The 1600 km, the General staff of the German Army started to have doubts.
The Commander, General Halder, it is not opposed seriously to directive previous of Hitler.
Now, with the objectives strategical reached initials, it advised caution, but in they go.
A collaborator of Halder observed: The Führer moved the hands in wide gestures on the map.
They attack here, attack there.
It was all vacant and it did not have in account the practical difficulties.
Halder refused the responsibility to advance with the arrival of the Winter.
Hitler answered:We need of the national-socialist persistence instead of professional capacity to decide the subjects to the East.
He is obvious that I cannot to wait this of itself.
It fired Halder and it substituted it for General Zeitzler, considered a genius in logistic, that wise person as to take the armies for where Hitler wanted that they were.
In Estalingrado, the Commander of 6º Army also had doubts.
The soldiers of von Paulus were not accustomed to fight body-the-body in bombed cities.
Here, its tanks they moved it snail step.
However, Hitler insisted, demanded, that they conquered the city.
A Russian soldier, Anton Gosnik: We withdraw of a building for another one, transforming them into ortalezas.
A soldier alone left crawling of a busy position when the soil underneath of it was in fire and its clothes in flames.
" In 26 of September, Hoffman complained in the way as the Soviets fought: "We do not see them.
They had been installed in houses, bilges, e goes off of all the directions, including our rear.
Barbarians! They use criminal methods! Zeitzler, the new Head of the General staff of Hitler, it examined the situation well e said to it: The positions most dangerous in the eastern front they are Estalingrado, to the North, e the flank of 4º Army Panzer, the East.
If the situation fast will not be corrected, will have a catastrophe.
Hitler answered: It is too much pessimistic, Zeitzler.
Here in the eastern front we pass before for worse moments of if joining we and survive.
Also we will exceed the difficulties gifts.
The German position was dangerous.
per week in Estalingrado.
They only could be substituted depriving the rows of the German army.
The Rumanians advanced for here.
The Italians dominated this area.
Its side, was Hungarian.
The position most precarious of all age this, where the Russians dominated both the edges of the river Don.
They made front to that not possuía armament heavy antitank nor tanks.
Hitler was not worried.
It thought, and the private services of the high command they had confirmed, that the Russians already do not possuíam strategical reserves.
In October, the Germans had invested again in direction to the Volga.
Unless they occupied all the edge of the river, the Russians would bring welded e abastecimentos at night.
Wilhelm Hoffman, 4 of October: Many machine guns had appeared Russians.
Of they bring where them? Another German questioned itself: We have to fight in one of those horrible Russian winters? Hoffman wrote in 14 of October: He has been fantastic since morning.
Our airplanes and will be furnishing with artillery they bomb the Russian ranks it has hours, uninterruptedly.
A Lieutenant of the Panzer Army, Wiener, wrote: Estalingrado already is not a city.
Of day, it is an enormous cloud of escaldante and cegante smoke.
It is a vast illuminated furnace for the consequence of the flames.
E when falling of the night, of those hot nights, barulhentas and bloody, the dogs dive in the Volga and swim desesperadamente until to another edge.
The nights of Estalingrado they are terrible for them.
The animals run away from this hell.
The rocks hardest not it they will support much more time.
But the men resist.
The daily one of Hoffman, the 22 of October: Who would think has three months that instead of the joy of the victory, we would have that to support such sacrifices and torture, whose end is not at sight? The soldiers call Estalingrado the common ditch of the Wehrmacht.
Of very far of Estalingrado, long columns of tanks had arrived e welded Russian in this Fall, but few had been for Estalingrado, the sufficient to prevent the fall.
The remaining portion was for meeting zones to the North and the South of the city.
Sets of documents for cinema said to the Russians what the leaders wanted: that small plants worked without stopping of Moscow to the Geórgia.
The namoradas ones of the soldiers wrote letters on the quotas of production.
or they wrapped up orders onward.
e delivered them for intermediary of messengers special.
Groups of young could to adopt its proper tanks e until posar with the members of the crew.
Groups of workers could to buy its proper Sturmovik e to send it to abate the hitlerianos invaders.
But the underlying message was clear.
The days of shortage had finished.
Now, finally, the Red Army received everything how much it needed.
When it seemed viable that Estalingrado if aguentasse, its generals had been filmed.
General Yeremenko, Commander of the Front of Estalingrado, it found time stops to distribute medals.
The speeches of Stalin were read with frequency the troop.
It had up to one Oath of Estalingrado: "Its burnt houses, the ruins, the proper rocks, are sacred.
" The war continued.
The Russians had carried the troops of boat, through the Volga and of the Don, e had accumulated them in the head-of-bridge that defended since the Summer.
The Russians had dug trenches e had waited.
The Germans occupied then nine we décimos of the city.
In 8 of November, Hitler one supper in Munique make a speeched after.
It wanted to arrive at the Volga, a point where it is a certain city, that it has the name of the proper Stalin.
It wanted to conquer it and we obtain.
She is ours, excluding few ranks enemies who still resist.
The people ask because not we finish the work more fast.
Well, I prefer to make the work with small groups of attack.
The time does not matter.
But the time was favorable to the Germans.
Exactly before the speech of Hitler, the Russian Winter starts.
The Germans knew he waited that them.
Soon, they would be 30, 40 or 50 negative degrees.
The equipment and soldiers would congeal.
But the Russians did not stop.
The Russians had tried to keep private its reinforcements, but they could not dislocate all the men at night nor to hide total In 10 of November, von Paulus asked for to the Hitler permission to abandon Estalingrado.
Hitler commanded that it continued to attack.
The Russians had continued to strengthen its rows.
In 19 of November, the Russians had invested.
They had attacked the Rumanians for the North e, two days later, for the South.
In a space of hours, the Russian tanks had passed.
The plans of the Russians they were ambitious.
Its two "hand-vises" would cross the Rumanians and if they would join in Kalach.
Thus, 6º German Army he would be besieged.
They would reduce the bolsão of Estalingrado and they could then attack the Southeast, in direction the Rostov, enclosing all the Germans in the Caucasus.
After the offensive one to start, the two Russian armies had been congregated four days.
It was everything so fast that it did not have time to film.
Therefore, it was reconstituted for the chambers.
The Russians judged to have enclosed 75 a thousand Germans.
In fact, 250 a thousand men had been isolated: part of 4º Panzer Army, Rumanians, Croatians and even Russian volunteers.
The local commander, von Paulus, he asked for authorization to escape.
Hitler ordered it to be where it was.
It would send troops to breach the wall.
E ordered one to it encouraging message: I know brave 6º Army e its Commander-Head e I know that they will fulfill its duty.
But the army it continued to have that to eat.
Goering, Commander-Head of the Luftwaffe.
In this year, its airplanes had supplied to an isolated army during 60 days fuel, the ammunition and food.
It judged that they could repeat the feat.
If the time was good and distance was not extreme, they could take 500 tons per day.
Hitler thought that would be enough, exactly knowing that the army says to need at least 800 tons.
The Russians waited.
The bombers were used for the transport.
The time was péssimo.
The aerial aid only brought one tenth of what it was necessary, although in an occasion it delivered a pepper shipment in dust e 12 contraceptive boxes.
The Russians had not directly attacked the 250 a thousand besieged soldiers.
They did not have the enough force.
Instead of this, they had followed stops West, and the more if moved away more it grew in the distance between Germans besieged in Estalingrado e its pretense rescuers.
The surrounded soldiers German had cold and hunger, but they were confident.
They had seated, ready to leave when the rescuers if approached.
But they had never arrived.
The Germans that they went to help Estalingrado they had withdrawn to the meeting of a new threat to all the South front.
The besieged Germans they were for its account.
The Russians were in advantage.
Until the quality of cares it showed the medical it.
The wounded German, to the exception of that they went of airplane for house, they died in trenches.
The Russians of the city had optimum index of recovery of the army.
Now, the Russians dominated air.
The bombers did not have opposition.
Hitler was blinded with Estalingrado.
The Russians also.
They could have left the men to die of cold and hunger in the wall.
Instead of this, they had congregated seven armies in its redor.
In Estalingrado, the fight continued in the same way bloody.
In the eve of Christmas, Germany, the radio spread out "to the living creature" this message of the troops in Estalingrado.
Attention! It answers, Estalingrado.
Estalingrado speaks.
It says the Front of the Volga.
But it was a lie.
The emissions of the city had stopped have one week.
In the Christmas, the Moscow Radio emitted for the Germans in Estalingrado: "Of seven in seven seconds, a German soldier in Russia dies.
Estalingrado is a common ditch.
" Tic-tac and the message they had been happened again all during the day.
The Germans ate now raw meat of horse.
In 8 of January, the Russians they had considered the surrender terms: heating, cares doctors and food.
The officers until could keep its ceremonial punhais.
Hitler refused.
Day the day, It helps our situation in the remaining portion of the aircraft marshalling area.
the last Russian onslaught.
They had thought that it would delay about four days.
However, two weeks later, they continued to fight.
In the day 24, von Paulus it informed the Hitler: Soldiers without the ammunition nor food.
Impossible effective command.
Inevitable collapse.
The army it asks for permission to surrender in order to save the lives of the remaining soldiers.
Still thus, Hitler it forbade the surrender: duty until the last man.
But the soldiers and officers German already started to deliver themselves.
In 31 of January, Hitler nominated von Paulus Marshal-of-Field, knowing that none Marshal-of German field is captured alive.
In the same day where it was promoted, von Paulus surrendered.
Its captors never had seen an officer German of such patent.
General Shumilov, whom he accepted surrender, not wise person well what to make.
Thus, the Paulus asked for one proves of its identity.
Later, one proves of that it was the Commander of 6º Army.
E later, of that it was really Marshal-of-field.
They had talked some time.
von Paulus was livened up.
Until it considered one has drunk a toast to the Red Army.
Hitler waited that it was committed suicide.
It was not a vulgar defeat.
It was a catastrophe.
Two armies German, e 90 a thousand imprisoned soldiers.
e died 150 a thousand.
The armies Rumanian, destroyed Italian and Hungarian.
Material sufficient is lost to equip one room of the German army.
This age 6º Army that, two years before, it does not conceive the defeat.
The prisoners had been lead for fields.
of weeks, of cold, malnutrition and tifo.
Of one hundred a thousand, but six a thousand they had come back toward house.
The inhabitants of Estalingrado they had come back, to look for what it remained of its houses.
When everything was finished, a Russian soldier said: The Germans are funny.
They had come to conquer Estalingrado with brilliant leather boots.
They had thought that it would be a stroll.
When everything was finished, Hitler said:What it is the life? The life is the nation.
However it may be, the individual has that to die.
It stops beyond the life of individual, is the nation.
" In 3 of February of 1943, the German radio announced the loss of Estalingrado.
courageous, but it loses to the enemy forces, immensely superior, e the favorable circumstances.