The World at War s01e18 Episode Script

Occupation: Holland (1940 - 1944)

Anne Frank, in its daily one, in day 6 of June of 1944: "It will be that the release, that she seems too much wonderful, a story of fairies, some time will happen? It will be that we will be successful in this year of 1944? Not yet we know, but we have a renewed hope.
More than what never, we have of to close teeth and not to cry out".
The people of Holland lives under the nazista occupation during four long years.
The World in War Occupation Holland 1940 - 1944 In 10 of May of 1940, without declaration of war, Germany attacked neutral Holland.
Parachutists and panzers had defeated the dutch army of peace time with its obsolete weapons.
Using the excellent dutch roads, the columns of Hitler they had crossed the plain country before the Allies came in its aid.
In the hour of the lunch of day 14 of May, In 15 minutes, they had provoked fires that they had destroyed the center of the city e had sown the terror between the population.
Roterdã capitulated e, few hours later, Holland surrendered to save other cities of equal destination.
In this night, while ardia Roterdã, the dutches had been without leader.
The queen and its government they had run away for Great-Britain to govern in the exile.
Collated with the idea of the nazista domain, more than 300 dutches, mainly Jewish, they had preferred to commit suicide itself.
The people was stuned, confused and distrustful.
Since Napoleão that Holland it was not become involved in a war.
We are completely stuned e psychologically relieved.
We had read what Hitler says.
How much to the Jews, I believed firmly in what it augurs.
Yes, I believed that it went to get rid itself of us.
I believed this.
We are not very alarmed.
We do not believe what it said.
My the Eddie brother, oldest, it came in our house when the war started e said:"They come with me.
We go to try to run away.
" E I remember my mother to have said:"To run away? Reason? I have to wait they bring that me clothes of would lavandaria.
To run away from what!?" Perhaps they were our enemy, but, in the truth, they did not seem to be it, at least, at that moment.
Only we were used of hotel e, since that we did not bother them, they accepted everything.
The doorman opened the door to all, as it makes today and as it had made during years.
The continuous made what they had to make e the porter made what it had to make.
Everybody, of the raised position more to lowest, it made its work.
Germany imposed a new administration commanded for a commissioner of the Reich, personally responsible before Hitler and that it governed for decree.
The new supreme governor of Holland it was the Dr.
Arthur Seyss-Inquart, a Viennese lawyer.
It helps to organize the absorption of Austria for Germany in 1938.
In Haia, it was directed the officers German.
The 12 public officers dutches with raised positions more also they were gifts.
Although 5000 soldiers German e dutch to have died, it does not have animosity between our hearts.
It tried to tranquilizar the dutches affirming that the ideology nazista would not be imposed.
Germany did not have designs imperialistas for Holland.
The dutch laws would continue in vigor until order in the opposite.
Seyss-Inquart became clearly that the country would be managed by dutch public officers.
Who wanted could be quit.
They had made it to few.
It asked for the cooperation between the two germanic peoples of the same blood.
As conciliatory gesture, Hitler commanded the release of dutch prisoners of war.
The people had been calmer.
The Germans had promised to keep the life level e to finish with the unemployment.
After all of accounts, the occupation it could so not be me thus.
The commissioner of the Reich, the proper Seyss-Inquart, it sent a train with children to pass vacation in Austria.
For the dutch nazista movement, the NSB, this age a moment of joy e they had given to the invaders welcome.
It has years that the NSB made assemblies in Lunteren.
But now, for the first time, instead of protesting against the regimen, was its defenders.
The members of the NSB had quadruplicated e had started to be 80 a thousand, what, exactly thus, it corresponded only the one percent of the population.
As the nazista party of Hitler, the NSB was born of the economic depression, of the fear of the bolchevismo and of promise of a renascida Europe.
It defended the order, disciplines e an authoritarian state.
Patriotic to its way, the dutch nazistas old traditions enalteciam, they glorified the native land e promised auto-esteem national.
To greet the flag dutch e to sing the national hymn it was part of the ritual.
However, the references to the real family, the House of Orange, was omitted.
Anton Mussert, the leader of the NSB, he was an engineer with one leaf of overtime.
It saw the moment as the ideal for the renaissance of Holland as great power.
Mussert molded it the image of Mussolini.
Hitler was the messias envoy to save the Europe.
People of my nation.
We remained fidiciary offices to we ourselves during 1931, 33, 35, 37, 39.
E we will keep in them thus! We will be proper! With our love for the people and the native land! The German tree has many branches.
We can be as the stronger branch if to show that we are of cepa necessary e that the dutch people can march in ahead! A German bomber sobrevoou the assembly.
They had passed only six weeks since that the Luftwaffe spreads fire and death in Roterdã.
They are felt in war with Germany? - Yes or not? - Not! Feel themselves allies of England? Yes or not? Not! But it had another Holland.
Surprising, in the anniversary of Bernhard prince, one week only after the fall of France, thousand of common dutches they had demonstrated its challenge.
The soldiers made pipe the side while the hymn was sung of Orange and if put white cravos, the preferred flowers of Bernhard, in national monuments.
It had who found that the open opposition did not advance.
A new organization politics approved for the Germans, the Union of the Netherlands, was formed "to join patriots in loyalty it stops with the occupying power".
With the majority of the other parties hindered of speaking, it seemed an alternative respectable to the NSB.
it was enrolled in the party.
Holland was a religious country.
Although Hitler to say that it was the rescuer of the Christian Ocidente, the churches were hostile to nazism for placing the man above of God.
In some churches she was denied the communion to the nazistas dutches.
All had of registar themselves through of photos and fingerprints.
The dutch government gives instructions to the public officers to remain itself in the active while they found that he was optimum for the people.
Now they emitted systematically documents of identity for all.
The Germans had introduced a racial questionnaire.
Shortly after the occupation, two Germans of the Policy of Security guard had asked to me: "It has Jews in its city" I answered it to them truth: "He does not have Jews in my city.
" But this was my first error, because, answering to this, it was accepting the discrimination racial.
We had to fill a printed matter.
A question said:it has Jewish grandmothers? I did not have, therefore he said that not.
E we did not perceive that we were helping to enclose the Jews, to become them vulnerable e pô them in a position where, later, they would be led and asfixiados with gas.
We do not perceive this.
After one year of politicalization, already we perceived better what the declaration meant, but the first impression was alone: its age, its dwelling, it has grandmothers of Jewish origin? Not? It is well.
It was a process, step by step.
The process of infiltration of nazism in the society it existed.
All the Jews had been removed of public offices.
The Germans had started to segregate the Jews of other dutches.
Coffees and parks had been banished of.
In Amsterdam, men of the NSB with black shirts they had directed it an area of the diligent classroom, they had taken off Jews of bars e had spanked them in the streets.
The Jewish groups of defense had retaliated.
A nazista dutch was died e a man of the Gestapo was wounded.
As retaliation, the Germans they had arrested 400 young Jews, they had spanked them and they sent them for Mauthausen, already known as a death field.
An employee of communist cleanness, Piet NAK, following the instructions of the party, it was in the street and it asked for to the inhabitants that they protested.
It instigated what me personally, e I think that to the others also, it was our immense hatred.
We had never seen nothing thus in Amsterdam.
Great people, only because were mistreat, men, women and children without exception, imprisoned and they had been spanked.
What they would make if they saw somebody in the water? Clearly that they would dive to save this somebody.
We do not ask if the water she is clean.
The anger is as much.
The only thing that we could make it was a strike.
It would not know more what to make.
We did not have another exit.
Thousand, in a compact column, they had marched for the streets of the center of Amsterdam, while they had surrounded them to the Germans with tanks.
Clearly that the manifestants they were not armed, but its march and its songs were its weapons.
They had marched for the Rosengracht e had sung the International.
In as the day of strike, we had a meeting in Department of Cleanness.
The head wanted that we returned to the work in the afternoon of as the day of strike, but already we only decide that we came back in the third day.
The elétricitários, that had designated the beginning of the strike, they had designated its end.
The Germans already had killed nine people.
To continue would mean a blood bath.
During 48 hours, workers, business-oriented storekeepers and men they had initiated a strike singular in defense of the Jews.
My opinion is: they set in the place of the Jews of Amsterdam.
They were felt abandoned, left to its luck.
But had to this strike, it must have had many Jews.
Many I do not know, but if to ask to me if I find that this made something of good, answers: if only Jewish one in a gas chamber it will have felt that the workers of Amsterdam they had not abandoned it, then it was not in go.
Collated with an opposition so destemida, the Germans had abandoned what he remained of the conciliation.
The presidents of chamber of three cities that they had been brandos with the strikers they had been substituted by dutch nazistas.
The leaders of the NSB, despite not to be able to form government, they had been placed in position of being able.
The director of the Bank of Holland it was Rost Van Tonningen.
My husband enrolled itself in the NSB in 1936.
One was interested for the work of Hitler for what it was making in Germany.
In Holland, the situation was different of Germany.
It had much poverty in Holland, we did not have buildings, three rooms of the population did not have job e had poor clothes, therefore the situation in Holland it was not very good.
Before going for the NSB, it stows in the youthful movement.
The only difference between the NSB e the youthful movement he is that it was not a movement politician.
The intention was to congregate the children of poor people e to give an ideal, pô to them them in one work of team for outrem.
To the look for the movement youthful in Germany, we saw that was very different, because they had German personality e in Holland the personality was dutch, therefore we pass of the movement for the NSB, because we saw the ideal, the danger it bolchevismo.
We wanted to work, to transform it into a great movement, to help the Europe as a joined Europe great e, with some countries working in set.
Another nazista dutch, Woudenberg, he was commanding the unions.
My father worked e lived according to a religious ideology, without it to call God or another religious name.
My father was very known, but very hated e I had the possibility to go for Germany for a national-socialist school.
It was a school as Eton, or of this sort.
We used uniform e we had the sensation to be a selected group e to be better that the others.
E we feel ourselves happy very when we feel in them thus.
E in the little time where I was educated in accordance with that ideal of a germanic empire, it did not have reason to think about Holland when it was in the school.
Wise person a thing: that war had that to be it earns.
When I arrived at a certain age, I became welded, to fight, to be able to leave that small country e to obtain a new situation, the great germanic empire.
June of 1941.
The NSB asked for support to the German attack to Russia.
Mussert asked for to all dutches who if joined: "For Hitler, against Stalin, against Churchill.
" It started with "beeper, beeper, beeper" e "Orange Radio".
We were seated in the dark one.
We only could have a small candle or something thus, and we were hearing.
Hundreds of thousand they had risked it to be imprisoned to hear dutch emissions from London, the only reliable news source.
The radio asked for to the patriots that they painted signals: The Z - Orange Vai To earn - and the V of victory.
Goebbels initiated a contracampaign much little convincing, affirming that the V was of the victory German in all the fronts.
At the beginning of 41, we decide to create a cabaret politician.
We look dutch records old in the London store, because we used the songs e we made new letters so that each dutch he could assoviar them.
E the dutches thought:"That one he heard that in the Orange Radio".
It had two youngsters that they had come for England of canoe e had been presented that me.
Suddenly, I had perceived who age, they had looked at for me in a strange way e had said:"You it is this woman? This voice?" E I said that yes.
They had asked if touch they could me.
E I answered:"With certainty".
I felt a thing very stranger happening.
Suddenly, I perceived what I meant.
Not I, but that voice e what we wanted to make with it in the busy countries.
To the surface, Holland it seemed to be as always.
Under the protection of Seyss-Inquart, the teacher most famous of Holland, Willem Mengelberg, still it had fantastic performances in the Concertgebouw Orchestra.
But the Germans pressed its claw each time more.
In 1942, the invaders they had started to strenghten the coast.
They had evacuated ranches where if they passed vacation, only two years before.
The Germans had placed more people in forced works.
The ones that resisted imprisoned and were fusilladed.
It did not have signals of an allied victory.
No signal of when Holland would come back to be free.
The German promises of not to impose its ideology then they had been forgotten.
All the artists, writers and painters they had of if joining the associations cultural controlled for nazistas.
Only the music approved for censors could be touched.
The Jewish composers had been banished e the origin artists Jewish they had been fired.
Slowly, the resistance it started to organize itself: weapons and explosives for sabotages, a clandestine typography printed e distribuía running great risk.
The few thousands of men in groups of the Resistance they had become it conscience of Holland.
The illegal pamphlets asked for to the people not to go the Aryan porting meeting sponsored for the Germans.
But the hearings had increased.
The people wanted to run away from the war.
The Resistance also asked for that they did not hear radios controlled for the Germans, therefore they only emitted popular music and propaganda.
Popular artists as Eddi Christiani they had walked in the rope bamba enters the contribution and the resistance.
I know that to hear music contribution could be considered, but then all the dutch people collaborated.
If it only could hear the German station, understood? We can say:"Not taste of German music e never I heard music during the war".
But if we were one week in house in absolute silence, if nothing did not hear, at a weakness moment we bound the radio e we heard music without wanting to know if she was German or Chinese.
It is better of what to hear the bombs, the airplanes and the shouts of the Germans.
The dutches could sit down e to be hearing music, but they could not dance.
Also he was forbidden to give espectáculo with the orchestra.
A trompetista could not touch in surdina, as Duke Ellington, and to cantarolar.
A trompetista or a saxofonista they could not make movements with the instrument, as to balance.
E could not touch a note more acute of what one dó, because this age black music e in Germany said that black music was music of the Devil.
As we were cultured people, as the Germans, we had to touch adequate music erudite.
In that height, it had officers that they looked likeable women.
Nowadays I have customers in the hotel that they look likeable women.
If they want likeable women we have that it finds them.
Still today the meeting, if to ask for to me.
But I must say that.
It was.
If one may use the expression? It had the office in the Square of the Museum e was the commander of the city of Amsterdam, so to speak, e was that the one that today would call playboy.
Only that one was playboy German fardado.
It always had two places in a cinema of the city, the Jater, there e I sat down many times with the card of it.
Nobody could sit down in those places, but two used as I, young, there they sat down the invitation of the commander.
We amused in them with that.
One film that had of being shown in all the dutch cities it was "To give ewige Jude" (the Perpetual Jew).
Made in Germany, it was part of carefully prepared campaign to provoke the fear and the hatred for the Jews.
In each busy country emphasis to the message of the film was given, using material place.
The Germans put now in action its plan to destroy all the Jews in the Europe.
The population had, first, that to be led to collaborate or, at least, to accept.
It had 140 a thousand Jews in Holland.
In May of 1942, they had been obliged to use the yellow star of David.
In the Fall of this year, they had been congregated and led for concentration camps.
The Jews could not go to the cinema, the parks, the place none.
But my brother discovered that he could rent a boat e to walk in it in the Amstel.
In a Saturday, one rapazinho fell to the river.
My brother jumped soon and saved it.
He was the son of a fascist that it lived in our street e the mother of this rapazinho she was very grateful to the Jewish youngster that it saved its only son e said to it: "If some time will be able helps it, it comes my house.
" It moved away itself, but still he did not have fond so low.
It came back behind e said that perhaps it could to use what it had said.
"Please, it writes in a paper that I saved its son.
It is the only thing that I ask for to it.
" E it said as soon as yes, that it made this for it.
I remember the letter that it wrote saying that it had saved its only son e the German greetings.
Underneath it wrote "Heil Hitler".
E my mother was very angry with it.
It beat and it said to it:"It is wild? So that you made this? Now they know our address perhaps e appears tomorrow.
" It did not perceive that they had the addresses of everybody.
One day, we were all taken for the theater.
It had tables, people who wrote things and.
It was terrible.
A man looked at for we and said: "She is its family? All for house can go.
" It was incredible.
To come back to walk in the street, to 6h of the morning, to be free of new.
For the first time, we were perfectly safe.
We were at the hands of them e it ordered us for house.
We were tired, but we were not for the bed.
My mother made coffee e we feel in them in security.
Nor I know how many times had taken in them of house.
One eleven times.
They played the game of the cat and the rat with us.
We knew as well as was:it came a man and ordered us for house.
In the last time, it decided that the game already lasts time excessively.
Ten or eleven times alone for a child.
All the Koupman family she had now that to go for Vught.
Great Jews had arrived in charretes of load to the fields of Vught and Westerbork.
Its names and documents they were verified by employees, many of Jewish them.
Later, they were ordered for the East to be reaccomodated.
In the truth, they would be asfixiados by gas e cremados in Sobibor and Auschwitz.
The Resistance asked for that if they made strikes and sabotage.
Railroad workers e the policies, under German control, they had not accepted.
The trains had arrived in the hour.
Of the 140 a thousand Jews of Holland, I arrived at the platform and were 24 people there, young e old, women, children, men, chained to an iron chain.
E had been carried stops Germany to be died for gas.
There they were four Germans, three of a side with machine guns e another one of the other side of the group.
I was alone.
It was noon.
It was in the way of the city in a railroad platform.
What I could make? If I, suddenly, could kill the three, the other man would appear armed.
He was abandoned.
But exactly that it caught the four, what it could make with 24 people chained some to the others the half one of the day after killing soldiers in a place with Germans? Therefore, I moved away myself e the sensation was horrible.
After an experience of those we have a new stimulaton to run risks for the few chances that we had.
I was much time in Vught, until the last prisoners Jews to go even so.
Morris, the youngster who tried to save us, it had to leave me, what it was terrible.
My parents had been themselves even so to the end of four weeks, but I and it are together during nine months e it took care of of me as a father or a husband would have made.
In the height not yet she was married, but the way as it it took care of of the sister was moving.
It worked at night e was very adept.
It tried to sew things for other prisoners, food obtained a little more than, horrible food, for the sister, e, to the end of nine months, it had to go even so.
I would have IDO with it, but I could not because it had.
How it is that it is said? Scarlet fever.
It had scarlet fever and this age a nojenta thing for the Germans.
When one was sick not if it went for the gas chamber.
First, we had to recoup.
It gave to the illusion of that nothing happened, because nobody carried age when it was sick.
My brother came to say farewell itself to me, I looked at for it and I thought: "For love of God.
It cannot go with those poor clothes.
" It was low, therefore I gave my coat and I thought to it: "It closes in contrast, but it does not make badly".
E I gave my boots to it.
I was in the large cabin seeing to move away itself it.
Visa of coasts, was similar to me e I had the certainty of that never it went more it to see.
I had the certainty.
We fail as nation.
We did not make everything what we had for the Jews.
One has left of the population, of the dutches it made, it, but already too much late.
We had been neutral in the World War I e we find that we had to continue in Second.
It was a besteira.
E to have a protest feeling it is not the same that to put this feeling in action.
To the measure that the war advanced, the Germans had asked for welded to fight with them in Russia.
To all, it had 25 a thousand dutch volunteers.
In ratio to its size, the contingent greater of any busy country.
But half returned.
At the same time, the decrees German they forced healthful men to present itself to work in German plants of war.
Not to be separate of the families, thousand sets of ten they now tried to hide itself.
The verifications to documents made for the Policy they became difficult the escape the conscription.
Another problem was the system of rationing passwords distributed for employees dutch public.
One of its tasks was to be of eye in the irregularities.
This because the Resistance, now greater and most organized, it counterfeited stamps and it stole rationing passwords to feed the people hidden in number each bigger time.
It had organizations special that they arranged places stops the people if to hide e that knew our dwelling.
When they needed to hide a person well fast, they knew that could bring it until us, because we always had two beds reserved for urgency cases.
To a great extent, they were people who were not much time, for times, only one end-of-week, e, however, tried to arrange a safer place where they could be.
In a small room, with one.
four or five meters, it had nine people, to the times, eleven.
E people of other places.
We did not have nothing that to make: to peel potatoes, the type of thing that we could make.
To read books of the Christian library.
I played chess with my woman.
I studied chess for the books that my friends they had sent me of Amsterdam.
But that age a hell, as Sartre in "Huis Clos" says.
To be seated with people who we liked each time less to the measure that the day advanced, with all the tensions.
The only escape was to sleep.
Of morning early we went to the office that it was in the Institute of the Bible.
He was excellent, because we hid the explosives and the weapons behind the library of the Institute of the Bible.
E we had to be there to 9h or 9h30, because, if we delayed in them, the group was worried.
"Where it is" E we tried to fulfill the program of the week.
The RAF launched plastics e we made a plastic explosive.
We find a good truck German e we put there.
We had to destroy one thing inside of that bomb half e hour later that blew up.
We did not have trainings none e we did not make it in conditions, therefore 45 minutes later, one hour later not yet blows up.
We come back to the office, we made another one e we pressure a little more.
He was risky to go pô it there, because if to another one it blew up with a small movement, I would not be here for counting history, but such did not happen.
Half hour later had blown up the two and were an immense fire.
Some was necessary terms joy to continue, because he had days where friends ours never more they would come back.
It had some illegal periodicals in Holland.
A time, the Germans had arrested 40 of ours e had put them in the field of concentration of Vught.
They had interrogated one of them, had freed it e had sent it until us with this message:"If to close the periodical", e this was close to the end of the war, probably in 1944, "if to stop to produce the periodical, we do not kill these people".
We made a meeting and we argue the question with very well-taken care of.
We arrive at the conclusion of that we had to continue.
When friends ours are deceased, we take the things more the serious one.
If we know that a man is penetrating in the clandestine force, e that we can kill it and save many lives, it is very difficult and she is one terrible responsibility.
We had orders to kill a couple, a dangerous couple.
We had killing of them in the street when they crossed the bridge.
To kill them and to run away there.
But it had a school for close e had as many people in the street who we think: "We go to take them for the school e to kill them in the bilge".
As soon as they had entered in the bilge e that we light the light, we saw that the woman was pregnant e we were not capable.
We agree, I and commander of our group, that we had to threaten them and was what we made.
We start for the man, we press and it well.
But we only threaten it.
Later we pass the woman, but in accordance with the state of it.
We risk in them accepting the promise of them to cease the activity, waiting for the end of the war for then making with they what she was necessary.
Spring of 1944.
The Second Front that would lead to the release it has in such a way desired.
The Germans had affixed posters saying that the allied invasion it would mean death and destruction.
"Mother, was of this Second Front what the father was always speaking?" But the invasion happened e in the Fall of 1944 Allies directed themselves northward.
In 13 of September, the first dutch city in the south extremity, Maastricht, it was freed.
The combatants of the Resistance they had arrested the nazistas e had punished the collaborating women.
But while the south of Holland if rejubilava, the remaining portion of the country waited impatient for its release.
Days later, its hopes they had been plays for land.
The Allies had been hardly defeated in Arnhem.
The dutch government in the exile asked for a strike in the road-of-iron so that the armies German they did not have provisions.
The railroad workers, that they had hesitated before, they had shown its force e the transports had stopped all.
The Germans had retaliated cutting the supplying of fuel and food to the cities of Holland occidental person.
It had people that they swept the desert and quiet tracks in coal piece search.
The store had been without food, the prices had gone up in the black market.
The people had survived eating bulbs of tulipas.
Although the privations, the strikers had continued.
Using counterfeited headings, the wages were paid for the Resistance, that it hid 300 a thousand men now looked for the Germans for forced works.
Not gas had electricity nor.
The people had used the wood of the houses left for the Jews as combustible.
To the measure that the Winter got worse, the Germans had felt sorry themselves e had allowed soups of the poor persons.
Exactly thus, he was obvious that many would die of hunger if Holland was not freed.
I asked for to my Bedell friend to ask for to general Eisenhower to make a separate action to free the remaining portion of Holland.
We would go until the o Maas e later until Nijmeigen, and ready.
The remaining portion was.
The Winter it was each worse time e, in this height, almost at the same time, the German counterattack in the Ardenas appeared, what it opposed all our expectations.
Hitler leaves Holland in the misery.
Only in Roterdã, two days of November of 1944, e led for Germany.
The bell touched and was two Germans.
The two had gone up.
One was in the top of the stairs e the other entered in our house.
It looked in return e the two men who were there they had had of if dressing and going with them.
We, the women, start to cry, he is clearly.
One with one drinks in the arms e grasped other to its skirt.
E still I remember perfectly of the German who entered in house.
It was crying, the tears they ran for the face and said to it: "I have great penalty not to be alone.
It would adore to be able to help, but I cannot make nothing, because I am folloied and I do not know it".
It could not make it.
It would have attemped to leave those men there, because that found horrible.
He was the first time that vi a German to cry.
It cried copiosamente.
The tears rolled to it for the face.
In that Winter, 16 a thousand men, dutch women and children they had died of cold and hunger.
However, the liberators had not arrived.