How the Universe Works (2010) s06e09 Episode Script

War on Asteroids

We saw the movie, a huge asteroid headed towards the ground Collides with the atmosphere and hits the surface To send a huge fireball, and a lethal shock wave The earth groaned and grew But this is not one of those films It's about how to repel the earth and its humans To end the disaster of the end drsamehnour@yahoo.
com Ways of working the universe Planet Earth The cradle of life, floating gracefully through space Or so we believe Our planet may be the harshest part of the universe Think about the natural disasters that have happened to mankind Earthquakes, volcanoes, hurricanes and the like We can not stop it But the asteroid, that's a disaster A huge natural we can prevent When people hear the word asteroid, the first thing they can think about Those fantasy films about the dangerous asteroids that hit us The story of the extinction of dinosaurs Of course there are some dangerous asteroids When it comes to searching for asteroids And defending the earth, the scientists are the heroes strongly Across the world, Hama teams are looking Planet on ways to prevent disaster sweep the sky They do accounts design technology They make plans to confirm that extinction The planet of space is nothing more than a science fiction If you want to face a discount You need to know a lot about him to defeat him Its size, its strength, its composition, and how it moves Know the same about asteroids if we want to defeat them To better understand this discount Cathy Plesco of the Los Lab National Alamos travel to Arizona Fifty thousand years ago, this was a point Collision behind a nozzle at a depth of 550 feet This meteorite nozzle It's amazing to stand on the edge of a nozzle Like this, I see the magnitude of something so great I feel small and try to understand the amount of energy Necessary to cut that huge amount of rock The meteor that blew the nozzle hit a hydrogen bomb But the rock was space Only thirty feet wide The meteor nozzle helps to understand how you do Speed converts a small shell into a killer The asteroid came at 27,000 miles an hour It's ten times faster The shot from the gun Hit the surface and burst The blast broke the nozzle The collision transformed the surrounding hard rock To dust, and sent a huge shock wave out The winds here are stormy but do not compare Shock wave impact Soon he would see winds approaching thousands Mileage per hour when the shock wave came Scientists concluded that there A 20% chance of such a crash on Earth every century If an asteroid had hit us like this today, it would have taken a city But Keithy's research helps us strengthen our defenses We believe there are various ways to prevent An asteroid from impact to Earth My colleagues and I are in "Los Alamos, Livermore and other places We use computer models on computers Super high precision simulators To tell us good ideas or not And we can present them to decision-makers Here's what we might do in comparison With what Bruce Willis could do The most powerful weapon in our defense arsenal is the nuclear bomb Exploding an asteroid in that way has its disadvantages He risks landing the earth with hundreds of smaller meteorites "But the Kathy team works On plans to avoid that risk In return, they use weapons To change the course of the asteroid One thing I'm studying is nuclear drift In some cases and in the near future may be There is a possibility that we need to repel a huge body on our way Those things, if they were huge, were lost We need to use a nuclear weapon to do that We might launch a nuclear weapon and detonate it Above the surface of the body to change its speed slightly Exploding a nuclear weapon near an asteroid A part of its surface evaporates and its path changes But the bombing of a nuclear weapon in space is not the first option There are some advantages and disadvantages of using nuclear deflection There are some situations where those are Appropriate technology is the only option at the time But we hope the future will have other means At our disposal is not difficult diplomatically or politically Scientists race to find a way to change course Asteroid without the use of nuclear weapons We discover more and more about asteroids and understand them We recognize the existence of ways to mitigate the The destructive effects of their impact on the ground This may be the most important attempt Scientific research carried out by humans The best way to stop the asteroid disaster To get rid of them before they become a threat Our solar system is dangerous Quick asteroids rush through space And many of those rocks are blocking our way To resist asteroid threat Scientists plot battle plans The first step to understanding this danger His prevention is to look for , Is not the great that may destroy our civilization But small that may destroy your city At the top of the mountains in "Catalina to clear the sky" in "Arizona" The asteroid hunter Craig Leonard "led research We guard the world that night With this telescope at the top of this mountain Comparing four pictures of the same patch of sky Which were picked up for twenty minutes Craig can track asteroids Hidden hidden between the stars Because in those pictures do not The stars move, but the asteroids If he were a bright asteroid we would see points Shiny light moves through the four images You should try a lot before finding One of them, this is the night situation as a whole night Here we are, it is a real object You can see it moving through the sky Here from the bottom right to the top left I'm thrilled to discover an asteroid tonight Because it is an object that approaches very much in the vicinity of the earth Craig's research reveals that this is a 100-percent asteroid A foot may be approaching 630,000 miles from Earth This is less than three times the distance to the moon In the future, this orbit may be approaching Asteroid from the ground up to a collision course If that happens we must prepare for it Whenever we spotted it earlier in the day We have a better chance of changing course The space is very roomy and the earth is tiny Even if we spotted the asteroid from afar We changed its course slightly and poke slightly and corrected The path is slight when it reaches the position of the land of Vetilavana completely To do this, we change the asteroids off track Imagine the game of golf, changing course The ball with one degree completely loses the target Measure it on asteroids Over time, you can leave Asteroids are embedded in the asteroid belt To become dangerous objects near the ground at a distance Thirty million miles may hit our planet one day But if the planet's protectors could change The path of the body is dangerous by ten degrees You will completely avoid the earth Scientists have devised a direct way to do this In the game of football, if the defenders saw the back The rear is going towards the finish line, so what are they doing? They collide with him and push him off the pitch and drop him This is what we want to do with asteroids If we send something moving toward the asteroid quickly , Great for colliding with it, we call it locomotive locomotive He hits him hard, and does not change speed Asteroid, but also its path Scientists have already intercepted Earth-like objects resembling asteroids The Deep Impact vehicle arrived at "Temple-1", guilty of the size of half of "Manhattan" The vehicle launched a probe Small on the comet like the shell "I ran into" Temple-1 Like a shell to explode material from the surface The search continues in the motor crashes "In 2022, a vehicle called DART will collide The asteroid speeds at about 13,000 miles per hour Transmission of that driving force It will change the speed of the asteroid slightly Maybe part of the mile per hour But over the course of a decade, this change in speed, even though I said it will work To change its position significantly enough to avoid the Ear Collision with a huge space rock Changing its path may seem unusual But astronomers have found it very much in space If there was traffic congestion on a highway and lots more From changing the lanes, collisions will occur sooner or later This happens in our solar system as well The asteroid belt is very busy Asteroids hit each other at relative speeds of several Miles per second, and when that happens sparks fly If we start with two asteroids and collide Suddenly they produce ten asteroids The ten will collide again to produce a hundred asteroids These asteroids will hit each other to produce thousands And millions and billions of potential landslides But that war is not just a game of numbers Because asteroids do not all consist of the same substance We will need different weapons for each type Across the world, the protectors develop the planet arts Battles to protect us from a large asteroid collision But there are millions of asteroids in the system Each of which represents a danger of some kind Its speed, size and travel is about Earth helps determine the degree of danger Our words increased our understanding of the asteroid They prepare us better so we can defeat it It is the issue of knowing the enemy We need to know something about those properties So that we can keep the danger away from our course But scientists realize that the installation The asteroid may be the deadliest factor Knowing the asteroid's structure helps us Looking for weakness in her armor Marina Prasovic "from the Center for the Study of Artes near" The Earth uses a technique that evolved during World War II Radar Planetary radars are much like radar The airport radar is also tracking Aircraft we are tracking asteroids Hundreds of thousands away Perhaps millions of kilometers Radars also tell us Also how does this asteroid look like We want to know its size, shape and chemical composition Considering the details we see On the surface and lack of vehicle transmission This can not be achieved Our space mission Radar shows that asteroids may be composed Of rocks or minerals or a combination of them This is important information to calculate how we deal with it Metal asteroids are much denser Of the usual rock asteroids Collisions from a large iron asteroid could generate energy Much more than a rocky asteroid just the same size It also caused the metal shell More damage than a rock of the same size The asteroids may be mineral More deadly than the rock asteroids Scientists have now discovered that most asteroids are less similar With metal shells and much like the cosmic shots Most asteroids are not bodies One compact but clusters of gravel It consists of many smaller rocks Blocks and granules and parts of the sand All of them attach gravity to each other without tightening Asteroid asteroids such as "Itkawa" in the form of a bead The beans may have originated from violent collisions between asteroids At first, the rocky relics were scattered Of those collisions such as shrapnel Then the gravity that controls some The rocks bind them together again without tightening The composition of asteroid asteroids represents A great challenge for the protectors of our planet How can the champions of science They save us from a heap of stones? If the body is a solid block of metal it will respond to the collision or The explosion is quite different from if it were piles of gravel They are linked to each other without gravity They are very fragile bodies and need special considerations We can not necessarily collide with them Collision with asteroid asteroids It is like smashing a pile of leaves Thousands of smaller rocks will be pushed in every direction They can not be monitored or predicted and may continue to rush us But we have a plan Instead of using brute force We can use a slight gravity lift Instead of this obnoxious approach to beating him away Just, we need something more careful and more precise Here is where the gravity locomotive comes The piles may be rocks Small but attractive If we send a probe that has a ton mass, for example, it will be It also has an attraction, not great, but it is present If we approached the asteroid, we could use gravity Mutual, attraction between them, to pull the asteroid into a safe orbit All we need to stop is a vehicle Next to the asteroid and hover over there We do not let the gravity of the asteroid and the vehicle entice each other And let the gravity of the vehicle work As a rope to pull the asteroid out of orbit That may sound like a science fiction, though That physics is simple and we can do it But the gravity locomotive works only if We followed the movement of those asteroids accurately The problem is a giant agent Complex in the middle of our solar system the sun Planet protectors want to stop the disaster of the end Their mission is to protect the land from collisions Asteroids that seem inevitable But to do so they have to predict all their steps In a constantly changing solar system, this is not easy We measure their orbits and we can draw Maps of their orbits as we see them today , But we know that it is not a fixed group, but a moving one Things change constantly in the asteroid belt The order of asteroids is not just about size, it is necessary Understand the density, orbit and speed so we deal with it The collisions may work Asteroid reducts in new orbits But there is another influential factor, gravity The giant gushing buyer Jupiter is the largest object in the solar system And sits outside the asteroid belt His attractiveness can attract those asteroids And make their orbits more oval To send them towards the sun passing through the Earth's orbit Simulate buyer effect on millions Asteroids are very difficult Now add some effect The biggest crash in the asteroid belt Three hundred miles of rocks "Such as" Vista "and" Palace The difficult task becomes almost impossible But gravity is not by force The only ones that make chaos orbits This asteroid "Pino", there is a chance In 2700 the earth was shocked But the Pino orbit is constantly changing In the last 18 years, sharp He traversed more than a hundred miles The sun may be the culprit What can change the orbit of an asteroid? It's easy to imagine that those huge rocks Some of which are adjacent to some of them attractively But it has the strongest effect Because of something as slight as sunlight? Their impact may be very slight But the sunlight on our bodies makes a slight pressure The fact that one of your sides is warmer From the other is like a push you may move Sunlight consists of bundles A small energy called photons When the photons collide with the asteroid, they are transported Very little driving force and heat Imagine this situation here Here is our asteroid It may actually be offered Ten miles or miles or the like Here is our asteroid, and here is the sun The asteroid rotates around the sun that way This face is heated by Asteroid by heat from the sun Here is the rear facing face The emptiness of cold space is cooler I really feel it with my own hands The warm face that draws the light from the sun restores Distribute that temperature in the infrared spectral segment All this radiated infrared radiation from The side of the asteroid acts as a rocket engine in some way He drives the asteroid This is known for the influence of Yarkovski It is a slow process The asteroid pays with equal force Weight a few grapes on the ground "But when it turns" Pino Around the sun it warms one of its sides What he pays for a different orbit Effect of Yarkovski problem If gravity alone affects those asteroids To predict the location of all asteroids and planets We were able to figure out the path of those Asteroids for many years to come But this is changing with the influence of Yarkovski In a way that makes it difficult to predict It depends on how opaque The asteroid, though it revolves and its shape It makes the orbit of the asteroid difficult Predicting the distant future The effect of Yarkovski makes anticipation movement Asteroids like Pino are more difficult But the protectors of our planet are adept They try to use the effect of Yarkovski To make a new weapon in their arsenal We know that the effect of Yarkovski The orbits of asteroids change a lot It is an effect we can use To move the asteroid ourselves If we could change the way the sun warms up to the asteroid Change its color or change its shape to heat in a specific way We can change its orbit in that way If scientists could send Satellite to asteroid It can use black or paint White to increase or reduce the heating effect "But at the University of Southern California A team of scientists is working on a high-tech solution They want superiority On Effect Yarkovski " Using Laser Space he claims " De - Star Imagine O Shelf Continental Mass floor Under water Stretch Approximate Fifty Miles Off the coast When Hit