The World at War s01e06 Episode Script

Banzai!: Japan (1931 - 1942)

It has 30 years more than, that every day this couple carries through this singular ceremony, to watch the guilt of seven souls before its deuses.
We are in Japan.
E the seven souls belong the seven Japanese criminals of war hanged people for the Allies after 1945.
The World in War BANZAI! Japan 1931 - 1942 Japan suffered sufficiently with the great depression later of the World War I.
The population it increased quickly e every year was born millions of mouths to feed.
Japan did not have resources minerals, the unemployment was high, e the bad harvests they had brought the hunger to the agricultural zones.
The life of the people, in general, it was very difficult at the time e the majority of the young officers vine of agricultural families of the classroom low e with certainty that passed for very difficult moments.
In 1930, it was when Japan it entered in what the period is called more convulsive of its history.
The influence of the group extreme-nationalist e incident as the revolt of the young officers in 15 of May, they had been to the few placing Japan under the power of the military.
The politicians had been in second plan and the army in first.
The Japanese army it was in discredit until the o start of years 30 e later recouped through the calls Patriotic societies.
Many of them not they passed of gangsters that they would commit any crime on behalf of the patriotism.
These had been the years that certain authors had described as the period of government for homicide.
It had some homicides of first-ministers e leader, at this time, only because they had liberal opinions or because they were in favor of one better relation with U.
S.
A.
, Great-Britain or other nations with one has lain democratic.
The army also controlled the educational system e the respect for the martial arts it was inculcado in all the children.
For the Japanese, the emperor was a god.
But Hirohito chose to reign e not to govern.
It left itself to manipulate for the military e since the Japanese had sworn to serve the emperor until a death, its connivance was a good vital for the army.
To decide the problems economic of Japan, the army was in favor of the expansion for the Asian continent.
Korea has very it was of Japan, e since its victory on the Russia of the Czars in 1905, Japan also was authorized to have troops in the Manchúria.
The Manchúria was basically an inhospitable region, but it contained rude materials that they lacked to Japan, as coal and ore of iron.
Impatient that the politicians in Tokyo they did not see the necessity pressing to control the Manchúria, in 1931, a group of extremistas it was infiltrated in the garrisons Japaneses in the area e "persuaded them to control" it the fragile army of the Manchúria.
Without any opposition, soon, the Japanese army it controlled the country almost all, dragging to its front the manchurianos poor persons.
The world was shocked, but it did not make nothing, except a repreenção in Liga of the Nations.
However, Japan, it finds impossible to accept the report adopted for the Assembly.
E Japan abandons Liga.
The cloud of war of the Average East is spread for the world.
As they had busy the Manchúria easily e without interference of the remaining portion of the world, the Japanese generals in the area they had turned over for the neighbor of the Manchúria, China.
The China of 500 million of people, that during centuries if it found insurance for backwards of the Great Wall.
In July of 1937, one "incident" it was orquestrado to seem that the Chinese they went off on the Japanese.
Without investigating, Japan invades China.
Separate and badly equipped, the Chinese had not obtained to face the cruel Japanese.
Inside of weeks, the Japanese they controlled the North of China e bombed Pequim.
Pequim surrendered e later was the time of Xangai.
With the fall of Xangai, the Japanese forces they had advanced for the Yangtse valley to threaten then capital, Nanking.
It was in December of 1937, in Nanking, that the Japanese had committed, what it was until a time, one of the biggest atrocities of this century, when they had massacreed more than Until the nazistas they had been shocked e if had offered as mediating to prevent more deaths.
But the Japanese generals not they yielded with the military victories.
In the Summer of 1938, the Japanese had conquered one has left considerable of China, including great cities.
But they only conquered territory, not people, therefore the Chinese left for the vast interior.
But the worse one for the Japanese it was that the conquests seemed suspicion to the old enemy to the north, Russia.
In the Summer of 1938, Russian and Japanese troops fought for the ownership of a hill in the border Soviet-manchuriana.
The Japanese had led so great beating that they had opted to an agreement after only two weeks.
Ten months later, another dispute appeared e the Japanese had been defeated.
Of this time, for general celebrity Zhukov.
They had been from fear more conflicts with the Soviet Union.
But it approached also them of Germany and Italy.
To live in Japan was now difficult for the other occidental people.
We were constantly under the supervision of the Policy.
While European, we were always considered spies.
In the train stations, we saw posters of a man with hat to the Sherlock Holmes and cachimbo that it said: "Well-taken care of with the spies.
" It had the intensified actions of the Policy of the Thought e the Kempeitai, that it controlled the speech e the thought.
Later it had the introduction of national uniform, the Kokumin-fuku.
After the lessons, the people had vestiz them to go to work, they were beiges e very seemed with fardas of the military.
Later it had the cinema and the theater.
These productions were more martial and in glorificação of the war e the radio passed each time more music of military nature.
In the field politician, he had the Taisei Yukusankai, the system of one only broken, e thus was easy them military to consolidate the influence in the country.
We always saw and we heard soldiers who went for the war, onward in China.
They had taught to them that the best thing that it could happen to a family it was to be able to give a son, two children, three children, seven children to the service of the country e to die for the emperor e for the imperial family.
It had the leached ashes boxes, with the mortal remains of the soldiers, that they returned to Japan e we knew that we were in war.
The occidental influences they increased in Japan in years 30, something that disliked military and that they disapproved.
I remember that my former-woman, this must have been in 1938, it came back of the hairdresser, where it was to make clusters in the hair e a policy ordered to stop it e said that this age signal to it of decay occidental person, it must not have clusters in the hair.
To dance, even though music occidental person, except classic music that was all German, Beethoven and thus, this age badly seen.
The dance halls they had been closed e any type of diversion presented for the Ocidente the military made possible pora to forbid e excluíam it completely.
When I left Japan at the beginning of years 40, it had rationing, the prices were raised, the students in the schools or university they made trainings military practically every day.
It had officers of the army in each school to supervise the treinos e therefore, was a nation prepared for the war.
The war with China it was crawled up to 1940, but the Japanese wanted to finish it without losing the dignity.
The victories of Hitler on Holland and France in May of 1940 e the supposedly imminent one defeated Great-Britain, the generals had left sedentos Japanese for more.
In the generality, the Japanese people it was very contented with the German victory e the heard phrase more was: "They do not lose the bus.
" Three months after the fall of France, the regimen puppet of Vichy it are persuaded to allow the entrance of troops Japaneses in the French Indochina, brazenly close to the Phillipino, at the time, American dependence.
America reacted soon when embargoing iron ore combustible e to Japan.
The embargo approached still more the Japan of the Axle.
Berlin, September of 1940.
Germany, Italy and Japan they sign the Tripartite Pact.
The two wars in opposing sides of the world now they were joined, but not together.
The Japanese MNE, pro-Germany, Yosuke Matsuoka, after the visit of courtesy the Hitler it was in April of 1941 in Moscow, where it signed the Pact of Neutrality with Stalin.
The Soviet Union it are always a threat to the Japanese security e the army was desirous to face the Soviet Union.
On the other hand, the navy, it wanted to advance for South, because the resources that they lacked to our country they were located in the seas of the South.
e Japan was, says, divided the ambition of the army enters e the desire of the navy.
But when it passed the time to intervine in the North, it is clearly that the army if it joined to the navy.
Japan had the navy more fort of the Pacific, but when occupying the remaining portion of the French Indochina in the Summer of 1941, the United States they had embargoed oil leaving the Japanese navy in a critical situation.
Japan could yield e to lose the dignity, or to advance for the South e to conquer this, the oil wells of the Antilhas Dutch.
A planning was initiated serious to take a decision.
Trainings in forest e amphibious exercises had started.
Unless the invasion of the Antilhas Dutch were before 1942, the oil lack would go to disable it forever.
Exactly thus, some Japanese politicians they did not have lost the hope to appeal to the efforts diplomatists.
But they had little time.
The generals had given the stated period of half of October to the diplomats.
In the end of the stated period, and following the advice of the Kido Marquis, Hirohito invited the minister of war, Tojo, to form government.
It has some interpretations for the action of the Kido Marquis when choosing general Tojo as first-minister in the last legislature before the beginning of the war.
I myself I asked to the Kido Marquis e it answered: The Tojo was only enough strong to dominate the army that it was uncontrolled e Tojo was sufficiently dedicated to the person of the emperor.
If Its Majesty of this to know its desires to the general, Tojo would go to respect its desires faithful.
But even though General Tojo if he shrank with the idea of the war.
It increased the stated period of the diplomats plus one month, up to 25 of November, ordering sent Washington to finish with the embargo.
Mine gentlemen, know as my mission is difficult, but I will make the possible one so that she is successful for the good of our countries, Japan and United States.
In this Fall, with little sincerity of both the sides, the charada diplomatics it was staged.
The government accepted the difficults negotiations with the United States, but the aspect of the nation it was each militarista time, e therefore, was impossible to continue with the negotiations.
While the diplomats they talked in Washington, in Tokyo, the military gave final touch in the conquest plan.
To have the unbroken wells an attack was necessary surprise, not only in the Antilhas Dutch, but also in Malaysia and Filipinas.
After having the oil, it still had the problem of carrying to Japan invisible to the eyes of the navy British, in Singapura or of vast seted the American one in the Havai, Pearl Harbor.
We find that if the war arrived e Japan was to fight in a conventional way, we had few possibilities of victory.
The idea was to reach the armed American in Pearl Harbor at the same time that the war started.
It had three problems in the attack the Pearl Harbor.
The first age to keep secret, if the Americans knew that a Japanese armed if approached they would go to attack it immediately.
As it was the route to follow e the third o has attacked in itself, if it was possible to use torpedoes in little deep waters.
The biggest problem it was the launching of torpedoes in little deep waters.
The British navy attacked the Italian armed in Taranto e I must this lesson to them, of the launchings in little deep waters.
We made a model of Pearl Harbor, of the localization and of all the warships.
We send our agent for Pearl Harbor.
To the times, it went for the house of Japanese tea in Aliwa Height.
Of there, it obtained to see the armed in Pearl Harbor.
To the times, it took a walk for Pearl Harbor of taxi or car.
To the times, it walked in thick wall drinking beer collecting information.
Also it went to fish e thus measured depth of the water, but he was very dangerous e a time had ordered me to investigate the access of the torpedoes, therefore, I was to the forbidden area of Pearl Harbor, but I did not obtain to discover the access of the submarines.
I sent.
the information for commercial telegram in code.
The Japanese armed left Japan in 26 of November.
They had delayed 11 days stops to sail without being seen more or less 4000 miles until this area, to mere 320 km of the Havai.
Although to decipher the codes and to know that the war was imminent the Americans did not know where the Japanese would go to attack.
Lode of Tokyo the message: "To scale the Niitaka Mount.
" It was the signal for beginning of the war.
of 1941, a sunday.
The first one of the 400 bombers e torpedo boats took off.
The final destination age.
Pearl Harbor.
In the morning of 7 of December, Joseph L.
Lockard e I was detached to deal with a problem in our unit of radar.
The problem lasted of 4h to 7h of the morning e was a program of trainings.
I age the controller e Joseph Lockard he was the radar operator.
We catch a great signal that we had never seen e we start to trace the approach of this flight.
Then, I suggested that we sent the information for our Center of Information.
I bound for there and operator said me that it did not have nobody in the Center of Information.
It said that they would bind in them for the radar station e later such Tyler Lieutenant bound.
Basically, it said us to forget the subject.
We continue to follow the flight until 8h20 when the flight seemed to deviate for the right e for the left of the island.
I was on board the U.
S.
S.
California that was in wharf 3 e was in the deck preparing me to touch.
By the way, I was part of the band e to the look slightly for South it saw airplanes come of that one direction and of that one there, mainly from there, e was given the alert generality.
I released my instrument, one clarinete, I went down and I was for my rank e five minutes later, the torpedoes had reached them and blown up.
It was on board the West Virginia when the airplanes had come.
They were of the sort of ours Hell Divers, of the time, e the pilot had the glass of cockpit opened e flied so low that still I remember it.
It had the leather helmet of World War II e the eyeglasses e I remember it, because it had a very great mustache e when flying baixinho, it it smiled and it looked at for the ship e flied for the hangars when it released the first bomb.
Vi Arizona to blow up and seemed that they rained marine.
Clearly, these are that they had had luck because they had survived, the ones that had been projected of the ship.
I was first for the poop stops to see if obtained to leave that way.
Later I ran for the nose e had very combustible, but in the not yet ardia hour.
E I said:", Well optimum to make he is to dive.
" I shot it the water e I swam this way e later I came to that rock there and it was there that I was.
What I remember this more than morning was the terror and the confusion.
First, it was very early, the people not yet they had waked up right e to have somebody wanting killing in them in this hour it leaves in them confused.
We received the energy e the vapor of the dock berths, because we were in repairs e in the confusion, somebody cut the energy and the vapor.
Therefore, we had that to make manually all.
We only had one antiaircraft operational.
She was an antiaircraft one of 12 cm.
We start to use it when the airplanes if had approached.
The torpedo boats low the altitude they had come all of that hill there e this way, for Battleship Row, we had good vision, despite to be operating manually.
However, the weapons had that to be supplied manually.
We had to pass the ammunition manually.
We had a young chaplain on board, keep-navy, at the time.
It was with us has less than two months.
It was Hallow M.
Forgy.
E it.
It did not have rank none.
It was worried about the moral of the sailors.
It walked in the deck saying: "They pray and they pass the ammunition.
" We always lived in ships e we never imagine estragos thus.
It had ships ardendo, with fires, explosions in all the side.
I gave for the attack, when I woke up with the sound of the bombs e of the airplanes in air.
I was for varanda e vi as soon as they were Japanese airplanes e had a person for close that it said: "He seems true, does not seem" E I said:"Unhappyly, he is.
" I was to see with my officers I was to the side of the commander-head, Admiral Kimmel, e we were observing damages and the slaughter e suddenly, it made this movement e pulled out the hashmark of four stars that they indicate the rank and the heading of Commander of the Armed of the Pacific.
It was for its another one cabinet and when left, it perceived that he went to lose the command e now had a hashmark of two stars of Rear admiral.
The nine ships of seted American of the Pacific they had been sunk or destroyed, as well as several torpedo-boat destroyers and cruisers, but no aircraft carrier.
Happily for the Americans, the aircraft carriers were in sea in this sunday.
However, the Japanese they had been very satisfied.
The American armed of the Pacific it was not prepared e therefore, we were successful.
But the victory on the Americans was not the only one of the Japanese.
In 10 of December, the pride of the British armed in the Pacific, the Prince of Wales and Repulse they had been sunk.
In the same day, the Island of Guam surrendered.
In 23 of December, it was the time of the Wake Island.
In the day of Christmas, Hong Kong.
In the day of New Year of 1942, Manila, capital of the Phillipino.
In 19 of January, Bornéu.
The biggest prize of all waited the Japanese in Malaysia.
The plan for the defense of Malaysia it was based entirely in the Air Force e we must have 335 airplanes of first-classroom with the army protecting the bases and the aerodromes e the idea was they to attack the Japanese while they were in the sea e to destroy them or to make estragos before the beginning of the campaign.
The idea of Percival was to make front to the Japanese ones when they aterrizassem e this did not happen.
They had obtained to enter in Thailand e we did not want to break the neutrality.
Therefore, we were in disadvantage since the beginning.
The Japanese were in minority, was two for each one.
They had bad maps, normally pulled out of pertaining to school atlases, but they had made front to the British without stopping to regroup.
One of the reasons stops terms been in defense it is that the Japanese they used 300 tanks.
We did not have an only tank.
The British strategists they had decreed that armored they were not adjusted for the forest.
In the government, the British they found the forest impenetrable, in certain zones she was opened, in others not so dense, e the very dense ways they could be made by sea, that it was necessarily what the Japanese had made.
The forest is not thus a so bad place.
We can live of rice, salt and seeds of sésamo e salty fish.
This of the one for a soldier to aguentar much time.
For us the forest it did not represent the fear that it represented for some soldiers allies.
In the same day, they had bombed Singapura and Pearl Harbor.
The lights of the great port they had guided them e had been lighted during raide because nobody wise person disconnect.
This confusion would go to represent the reaction of Singapura to the attack.
I remember a British periodical to have a history where they expressed an opinion of that the Japanese they would never be good aviators, because they did not have the balance direction, therefore they had been loaded in coasts of the mothers when child.
The private weapon of the Japanese in Malaysia it was.
the bicycle.
When the tires were pierced, soldiers walked alone with the aros.
For the British, the racket in the roads it seemed tanks it left what them still more fearful.
I find that the main reason for terms failed in Malaysia it was that, at the time, we were in the limit of our capacities in the war with Germany and Italy e did not have trained men, aerial and maritime power, that we must have supplied to make front to the Japanese attack.
The priority of weapons and equipment for Malaysia it was very low at the time.
They were in room place, after Great-Britain, Average East and Russia.
In what it says respect to the men, the first priority it was the Average East e Malaysia it was in according to place.
The Australians who had arrived to Malaysia nor they knew to go off, therefore, we feel ourselves inferior to the good trained e supported well Japanese.
As the Americans in Pearl Harbor, the British in Malaysia they had been led to think that the Japanese Air Force it was poor.
But now, the aerial control British diminuía and disappeared.
It did not have a plain concrete it withhold the Japanese in land e had little determination to resist.
Your forces.
they were not so aggressive as we thought.
The British strategists had found that in the worse one of the cases, Malaysia aguentava three months, time of surplus to allow the sending of reinforcements for Singapura.
But under the command of General Yamashita, the Japanese had delayed but seven weeks to advance the 900 km for the malaia peninsula.
In 8 of February of 1942, they had crossed a thousand meters of strait of Johore for Singapura.
They had not constructed prohibited in the coast north of the island e the Japanese had obtained to enter without being insane.
More, they had stolen the provisionses easily of water of Singapura.
Now, the Japanese bombers they attacked Singapura the will, therefore virtually it did not have aerial defense.
By the way, the Japanese they were almost without the ammunition e thought to leave for the continent, but they did not know that the moral British had fallen for land.
General Yamashita he had not prepared plain for the one case British surrender.
When in 15 of February, major Wild, emissary of General Percival, it arrived at ours quarter-general to 15h nobody believed it.
They had ordered to speak me with it on the suggestion of a meeting between Percival and Yamashita.
Major Wild wanted that we were to the house of the governor, but it does not speak in surrender.
It said to it that it was impensável general Yamashita to leave from there, e what the general of it it had to come to have with us.
Major Wild agreed e said that would appear to 18h, but, one more time, it did not speak in the surrender.
When I communicated this to my superiors, they had been distrustful e abismados.
I returned to 18h to speak with general Percival and Major Wild.
I took them until a plant of Ford where the meeting with general Yamashita went to occur.
For the Japanese side not to believe this, they still were mounting the tables when we arrive.
General Yamashita asked to General Percival soon if she relieved, but the British general only spoke in keeping 1500 soldiers to keep peace e the order in Singapura.
One more time, General Yamashita he asked on the surrender, but General Percival he only said of these 1500 soldiers.
These two colloquies they had continued in parallel e the time passed.
Finally, General Yamashita he did not obtain to wait more.
It beat in the table and it asked to General Percival if it relieved.
In case that contrary, the Japanese they would go to launch a nocturnal attack.
"It was in agreement" Percival answered:"Not.
We do not want more attacks.
" Of new, General Yamashita he asked:"They surrender" E finally, General Percival it answered:"We relieve.
" The British found that Singapura was impenetrable, but they thought in one it has attacked for sea.
In the truth, the weapons pointed for the sea, land does not stop.
Later Churchill it said: "The possibility of Singapura not to have terrestrial defenses it did not make sensible as it does not make sensible to make a boat without deep.
" We are so surpresos because we thought that your troops, E we discover that they had about 110 a thousand prisoners in Singapura.
This defeat was the worse disaster to militate of English history.
More than 130 a thousand troops they had lowered the arms in the biggest capitulation that the British army knew.
The Japanese soldiers learn not to be made prisoners.
Therefore, it is natural that when sees hundreds of white prisoners in Singapura they disdain them.
Hundreds of British troops e of the Commonwealth days had arrived before the Singapura, exactly in time of if relieving.
With the fall of Singapura, the Asian Southeast was of Japan.
Inside of weeks, the army Japanese was in the Indiana border e the Japanese navy it was come close to the Australian coast.
They had had a victory of which nor they dreamed.
The British had suffered a last humilhação: the garrison was shown to the triumphant Japanese.
The sun had rank in an imperial power.
In another country, the sun was being born.