The World at War s01e07 Episode Script

On Our Way: U.S.A. (1939 - 1942)

I wait that the United States they are not become involved in this war.
I believe that thus it will be.
I assure and reasseguro that all the efforts of the Government they will be made with this purpose.
While to keep the power to prevent it, the peace will not be extinguished in the United States.
The World in War The Way U.
1939 - 1942 After the World War I, it had a isolacionismo wave, the entrance was felt that in World War I is an error e that the European countries they had many debts with us e the country became isolacionista.
I do not know nothing absolutely of the European subjects.
- Your proper battles Fight! - Another war? I does not stop! Of this time, America does not have to become involved itself.
I know that I will not make it.
If it will have war in the Europe, the country it must remember the first President e to prevent all the confusions in the foreigner.
At the beginning of 1940, the ambassador British in Washington it said that 9 in each 10 Americans if they opposed to the intervention in the war.
Some few, as American Nazista party, until they were determined to help the enemies of Great-Britain.
The Jews have that to be dominated.
The country sufficiently was divided.
The First movement "America" it defended the isolacionismo.
On the other hand, it had the Commission William Allan White, to defend America helping the Allies, who were of the other side.
It had curious voices, as of Charles Lindbergh and the others, that they were the voices of the isolacionismo.
In the past, we deal with a Europe dominated for England and France.
In the future, we will be able to have to deal with a Europe dominated for Germany.
Charles Lindbergh, favors to its extraordinary feat, it was a popular figure very, almost a hero of the people, and had influence.
I assume that all the type of celebrities it has influence, contrary case would not be always supporting products.
but it does not have to be become involved in the internal subjects of the Europe.
They had been nor never they will be lead in accordance with our desires.
Great-Britain excited one strong antipatia in certain parts of the country.
One felt that it strengtove itself for dragging us for its war.
presidential in U.
e the great concern of Roosevelt in this Summer it was to be reeleito.
Ladies and gentlemen, of the Republican Party it now goes to have beginning.
While we congregate in them, the lights in the Europe are erased.
The shades of the dictators substitute the lighthouses of the free men.
It is our solemn responsibility to preserve the lighthouses of the freedom.
On behalf of the people of all the United States, I consider the candidacy of this American valoroso, Franklin Delano Roosevelt.
When France fell, many they had accepted to help Great-Britain, but they were still more the ones that refused to enter in the war to its side.
candidate for the third time, not he fulfilled the fiance' to the Americans.
The opponent of Roosevelt in the presidential elections of this Fall he was a candidate total anti-war, Wendel Wilkie.
The promise not to send ours youngsters for wars in the foreigner it is not better that its promise to balance the budget.
Both already almost belong to the past.
But Roosevelt, before the triumph generalized of the nazistas, it could not wait the re-election to prepare America for the war.
After one has debated without partidarismo, the Congress approved a law, establishing a selective method of increase of our Armed Forces.
It is our duty and obligation to organize our great potential to move away the war of our coasts.
More than 16 million of young Americans they make over again a tradition American of 300 years, the conscription, through which, since primórdios of the colonial time, the apt citizens if subjected to serve in the national defense.
The first extracted number for the Secretary of the War it is serial number 158.
It is an honor to be enters the first ones convoked e I will try arduously to be a good soldier.
E I am proud of you.
To choose if me President of the United States, I will never send an American youngster to fight in a European war.
I consider a public duty to answer the falsenesses with facts.
I will not dissimulate to find this duty ackward.
I am an old soldier e I adore a good fight.
Roosevelt had its good fight, although, to remain itself in the race, it has fiance', as its rival, not to send American youngsters stops to fight in foreign wars.
- Name, please.
- Franklin D.
of elections and, to the midnight, the President chosen for America for more four years he was obvious.
The results are now conclusive.
Roosevelt was successful.
A reeleito time, Roosevelt felt itself obliged to help Great-Britain.
But it had that to advance slowly, therefore America remained divided.
Many of the measures of war, as it helps Great-Britain when isolated and it was besieged, they had passed for little for the Congress.
Until one armament program preparation e, of military preparation, it was approved by the Congress for a lowermost edge of votes, for a vote, in one total of 400 votes.
The extraordinary legislation that was the system of loan and rent it was proposal in December of 1940 e entered in vigor in March of 1941.
Protected from it, the President made possible to help Great-Britain.
My instructions, it represented when it, they were very simple.
It had to contact the British government to discover as we could to help, without entering in the war, e to initiate immediately actions that were not neutral, of the point of view of the literal interpretation.
For example, we repaired British boats in American ports we escorted its fleets for the Atlantic, until a Iceland, e we yield two million tons of ships.
Clearly that the immediate problem it was to take the people to understand.
To this respect, I find that the analogy simplicíssima of Mr.
Roosevelt, to loan a hose to a neighbor when it has a fire, it was a simple explanation, of persuasivas.
The people of the Europe that if defends he does not ask for in them that let us fight for it.
It asks for the warlike material to us airplanes, tanks, firearms, ships, that it allows them to fight for its freedom and for our security.
We must be the great one armory of the democracy.
For us, this is an emergency so serious how much the proper war.
In this time, the enterprise community it considered Roosevelt.
a devil's advocate, at least, e Roosevelt distrusted intensely of the entrepreneurs.
On people to mobilization for the war.
they had opposing interests.
Some felt that its main objective in Washington it was to refrear the socialist excesses of the new social and economic plan.
Some were felt embarrassed for being there; it was as the sensation to touch in one brothel orchestra.
E also had great me the will.
It is said now of the military industry.
At the time, it had great reluctance in the conversion of the civil industry.
One gave credit that the warlike production would be a disadvantageous business.
We would lose markets of automobiles, chemical tires, products, etc.
It had a problem with some unions until June of 1941.
until Russia to enter in the war.
At the time of the Pact Nazi-Soviet, it had resistance on the part of the syndical leaders and strikes.
In 1941, four times had made strike more diligent than in 1940.
In this Spring, almost half million of miners it made one month of strike.
In the Coast Occidental person, the strike without acknowledgment of the North American Aviation, in the Summer, it delayed some weeks deliveries of airplanes to Great-Britain.
The army was necessary to restart the production.
Although the reluctance of Roosevelt in involving America in the war, the war went to the meeting of America.
A German submarine sinks the ship of American load Robin Moor.
Roosevelt used this as excuse to occupy Iceland e to relieve the British garrison there parked.
the American torpedo-boat destroyer Greer it was attacked by a U-575 submarine close to Iceland.
Roosevelt commanded then to the Navy that he went off at sight.
the American torpedo-boat destroyer Kearney it was reached by a German torpedo when escorting a fleet in the Atlantic e eleven members of the crew had died.
Roosevelt used to advantage to lead Congress to revoke the neutrality.
We wanted to prevent the shoot out.
But the shoot out started e History registered who went off the first shot.
In the long run, however, the only thing that will matter he will be who went off the last shot.
The revocation of the neutrality it will be the last step the way of the war.
If to load our ships with war contraband to send them to e for combat zones, certainly they will be sunk.
E this implies war, a war that, in the opinion of many of us, although conceived to save the democracy in the foreigner, it will surely go to destroy it here in America.
In 30 of October, the torpedo-boat destroyer Reuben American James was sunk, with the loss of 115 lives.
All the officers faleceram.
I and 45 men were totality of the survivors.
But, although the pressure of Churchill, that it desired America burning hotly in the war, Roosevelt nothing made.
One became clearly that the drowning of one hundred American sailors it would not be enough to drag America for the war.
It had the idea, that exactly me I remember to have been express, that England would fight until the last American.
The steps that went being given, gradual steps, without a doubt, they were comparable to the data in the World War I.
An incident after another one.
The torpedeado Sussex moved us.
e later had episode of the Lusitânia.
In the same way, I believe, that the measures of Mr.
Roosevelt, the easinesses in acquisition of armament, the protection of the fleets, the business of the torpedo-boat destroyers.
Situations were succeeded to produce, I believe, an incident that it would unchain the war.
The incident, when it occurred, was disastrous.
But it occurred in a place unexpected:Pearl Harbor.
The military bases in the island of Oahu, in the Havai, they are under aerial attack.
For the last notice, it is remained syntonized in this station.
My superior, person in charge of all the civil operations, were far, soon, I was sent to the great one meeting of the leaders of the time, that they had been congregated in Washington in the night of Pearl Harbor.
I remember my direction of mission when going to this meeting.
We see the war to come close itself.
The day and the hour had fond e was I in the meeting there with the other great men.
We arrive at the meeting and the others great men, including I, they had been a tremendous disillusion, therefore nobody wise person what to say or to make.
It seemed good idea to see that material he was threatened for the Japanese advance.
We were arriving, ones with porting coats e others with tennis, e became terribly clearly that nobody had concrete information how much to the origin of these strategical merchandizes.
Finally, the quarrel rolled, as I remember, in the question of capoca.
Capoca, all thought.
It appeared in the list of strategical material, coming of that part of the world, e nobody wise person so that she was used.
I ask for to the Congress that it declares that, since the attack it defames and not provoked of Japan in the sunday, day 7 of December of 1941, a war state exists between the United States e the Japanese Empire.
Exactly then, Roosevelt did not get the declaration of war against Germany, although Great-Britain already had if ally to U.
against Japan.
But Hitler decided for it.
For some inexplicada reason, Hitler declared war to U.
, what it alliviated Roosevelt of all its difficulties.
I practiced law in Chicago at the time of Pearl Harbor e I can guarantee that, if Hitler did not take such decision, if nothing it made, it would have the deep certainty in many parts of U.
that the War of the Pacific one was ours, but the war in the Europe it was for the Europeans e we had to concentrate ours efforts against the Japanese.
They give land to me Much land under covered with star skies They do not jail me They leave to ride me for the plains that I love They do not jail me The people vendiam the houses for a fraction of its value.
They believed that the coast occidental person it would be attacked, bombed.
It had cuts of electricity in the coast occidental person, as well as in the coast east, e until had occurred some false alarms.
Nor all led these precautions the serious one.
To the European eyes, the entrance of America in the war had moments familiar caricatos and.
The men go to give alive The youngsters go to cry out You they go all look E all we go in them to cheer When the Johnny To come back to march Those live between us to who we call foreigners.
We must remember that our parents, our grandfathers or our greats-grandfather, they had been all foreigners in its time.
If to judge to know improper activities of an foreigner, the police station must communicate it of the FBI next.
It does not try to make law for its hands.
It had an enormous change.
We were the same ones after 7 of December.
In 8 of December, when we were for the school, many colleagues and friends had called them Japanese pigs, had provoked them, they had antagonized them and the said ones friends already were not friends.
In the World War I, as they know, the Germans had been hated e had discrimination sufficiently e persecution of Germans.
In World War II, we were in war with people of three countries: Italians, Germans and Japanese.
I remember myself that Thomas Mann and Bruno Walter the Germans had defended e had said that they could not be dislocated because they would despair, for having run away from nazista Germany for another concentration camp.
The mother of the Joe di Maggio said and caused much commotion in San Francisco, as I remember, but Japanese did not have nobody.
GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS CONCERNING THE JAPANESE I find that the persecution to the Japanese it left of a logistic reasoning, of that the Army it would obtain to deal with them.
"We cannot deal with the Germans, but with the Japanese we can.
" After all, they could not dislocate all the Germans and Italians of the country.
They would have to take half of the inhabitants of New Iorque.
It would be ridicule.
This people always was unpopular, because it competed with the agriculturists Americans in the horticulture.
It worked much more arduously e cultivated the land more efficiently.
Much people used to advantage the situation to create antipatia against them.
The Government was precipitated and brutal.
It is not a pleasant chapter.
More than one hundred a thousand nipo-Americans they had been interned in mass, over all of the coast the occidental person, while 600 a thousand Germans and Italians they had been treated individually.
We hear rumors of an evacuation, but we do not perceive that it went to happen.
They had said them that only we could to lead what we could carry.
The defecated ones had three options: to vender, to abandon or to keep the goods.
In many cases, had to the uncertainty of the situation, the people had gotten rid themselves of its optimum good that could.
Then we were placed in bus e led for meeting centers.
From there, we were to live in stables or cardboard tents.
The mental anguish that my mother passed, for having four children serving the Government of U.
e the friction husband of dangerous foreign enemy.
It had sentries, observation towers e machine guns.
It was an arrest.
We felt prisoners.
Prisoners in our proper country.
THEY GIVE IN YELLOWS WITH ITS OLD TIRES ALL TO COLLECT The only certainty was that we did not go to receive rubber for some time e we would have that contenting in them with our reserve of rubber tires.
Our Agency did not have to be able to stop the sales of rubber tires, but we emit an order to the same one e we order an anonymous difundiz it, for all the cabinets of the Secretariat of Management of the Production, that they had to get rid itself of the paper, already it had much bureaucracy.
It entered, said:"Here it is the order on the tires" and all they subscribed.
E we paralyze all the reserve of rubber tires of the country.
All had work.
This was very appreciated after Great Depression of the decade of 1930.
The inflation could be thought that it would be the main problem, therefore it was what it happened in the majority of the countries, in the majority of the wars, but we mobilize ourselves very early, we establish a rationing e, although some few complaints, he is amazing as the system of rationing it functioned well.
I find that it had a trend stops to accept the crisis, with an exception.
The people resisted very to the rationing of the gasoline.
The lack of clothes, food, coffee or sugar was accepted, but it did not have malandragem, enganação or robbery that the people did not commit to get more gasoline.
I believe that they were taken offense over all of extreme youth of many of us.
It must have been difficult to accept the Secretariat of Management of Prices.
I had 31 years.
My assessor, David Ginsberg, had 29 e the others were almost all new than we, including Richard Nixon, one of obscurer employees of the Agency.
It has the famous photograph, taken off during the war, of Sewell Avery, a magnate who commanded the Montgomery Ward takes off and it of the Depression, being led of its cabinet for two American soldiers of uniform for not having obeyed the Advice for Esforço de Guerra.
Our program of war stops the next fiscal year will cost.
This implies taxes and obligations e obligations and taxes.
We have one launches here, ladies and gentlemen.
For 22,50 dollars, it is a beautiful acquisition.
They can lead for 22,50, to help in the war.
- It is a good purchase for any one.
- I can see this? It wants to see? If it judged that this age a shoe, increased for 22,55.
It finds some defect there? - We have one launches of 22,50.
- I offer 25.
The enemies are not docile.
They are savages, ingenious and implacable.
They had trained during years for this chance to enslave the world e is what they intend to make, using all the ways and cunnings.
But, on the other hand, they are not on-human beings.
They had not come of Mars.
They can be and they will be defeated, for men.
It will not have more alarms in the sea We are in a bigger and better war For its patriotic diversion We do not know why we fight But also we did not know of the other time Through the cannons and of the fire It comes to join itself the great parade That the tambores rufem That the trumpets sound While the people cry out "That the band starts to touch" They had been airplanes at the hands of enemies treacherous that they had killed my husband e to characterize if me as mechanics of airplanes in Wools Vegas, to help to fly them it with mine hands, I will feel that alive for it.
All hear the bells calling For the martial dance That the band starts to touch It has work to carry through It has a war to earn It walks, welded, it is placed in position Against the powerful enemy It walks, is hour to leave That the band starts to touch We make our part, but we will make infinitely more than what already we made.
We today have in our city two mothers, that already they had given to two children each.
As it said, we will give ours children, we will give our lives but, with the aid and the favor of God, we will not abdicate of free America nor of our democratic life.
That the band starts to touch There the Yankees go To help the English Of flag to the wind We can conquer the world That the band starts to touch, teacher In the night of Pearl Harbor, a man felt itself happy: Winston Churchill, therefore knew then that Great-Britain was saved.
Few days later, it travelled for Washington, to guarantee that the war would be stopped in the Europe in first place e in the Pacific in second, as well as cementing the new Anglo-American alliance.
That type of people they judge that we are? It will be possible that they do not understand that we will never leave to fight them, until having learned a lesson what the world never will forget? Churchill wise person who the time he was of the side of the Allies.
Supported for the industrial power of America, they could not lose.
Americans in the Pacific.
Japan took Manila, the capital of the Phillipino, in 1 of January.
The Japanese had made American forces in the Phillipino to withdraw for the narrow one peninsula of Bataan.
The American plan age to resist six months until arriving reinforcements.
But the reinforcements had never arrived e nothing prepares Bataan for a wall.
The besieged American army in Bataan it did not have air support, it lacked of medical material e the spirit was weak.
Until the Commander, General MacArthur, it leaves for safer beaches.
Here it is its bitter ballad: "We are the poor persons welded of Bataan Without mother, father or Uncle Sam" "Without aunts, uncles, cousins or nieces" "Without tablets, airplanes or artillery parts" "And nobody is imported.
" Proud with the easiness of its victories until the o moment, the Japanese had considered the surrender of the Americans surrounded in Bataan.
We direct it all the Allies in all the territory Phillipino.
To all, all the Phillipino e American in the country.
Also they had tried brochures.
directed over all the soldiers Phillipino in the American forces.
The Japanese had been come close for the definitive attack.
In May of 1942, general Wainright, American commander in the Phillipino it was vergou the inevitable one and delivered what it remained of its army.
I decided to accept, in name of the humanity, the formal surrender.
of all the American soldiers e Phillipino in the Phillipino.
All the soldiers must surrender to appropriate the Japanese officers.
It was the biggest capitulation in mass in American Military History.
The Japanese had made the Americans to march under the burning sun, until fields of prisoners about 160 km of Bataan.
Without water nor medicines, esfomeados and brutally spanked, ten a thousand soldiers they had died for the way, more than in the combats for Bataan.
In the Spring of 1942, the conquests Japaneses had reached the height.
Certainly the British and Americans they would want the peace, said Tokyo, a peace that would allow the Japanese to keep its conquests.
But already they were being taken measured audacious to attack the Japanese, here, in the heart of its empire:Tokyo.
I followed in a cruiser Northampton call.
We were has some days in the sea when we saw the Hornet to come close itself.
E the Hornet had uncommon airplanes in the deck.
They were seen of very far.
They were great airplanes with terrestrial base, B-25.
We only had a serious concern: that it did not have wind.
In these conditions, uprising flight of the deck with the load that we led it would have been, in best of the hypotheses, risky.
The worse one that it could happen would be the Japanese to be to our wait.
What in fact it succeeded was that, in the previous morning to the taking off, we find two boats of it fishes Japanese.
They turn our forces and they had sent a message for land but, unhappyly for the Japanese, they had been sunk before repetiz it.
Thus, we reach a effect almost complete surprise.
The real damages had been minimum.
We were 16 airplanes, each one with a ton of bombs.
In the end of the war, 20º squadron aerial, under orders of Le May, it sent 500 airplanes with ten tons of bombs each.
We release 16 in comparison with the five a thousand posterior ones, therefore the damages had not been great.
However, it had some advantages.
As our people alone received bad notice of the land, it was first the good notice that had e was appreciated while such.
It took the Japanese to question its gentlemen of the war, they had informed that them that Japan never would be attacked.
The Doolittle attack wounded the leaders Japanese and became neglected them.
Since Pearl Harbor, the Japanese Navy looked one decisive battle with the American, a battle that would decide of a time for all the domain of the Pacific.
At the beginning of June of 1942, the Japanese aircraft carriers they had been congregated close to the Midway island, the 2000 km the northwest of the Havai.
We leave so of being cautious as before.
The Americans already knew that we would attack Midway.
They waited them and we advance for the trap of them.
But while the attention of the Navy Japanese if concentrated in Midway, the American Navy prepared it has attacked the Japanese aircraft carriers.
We had a magnificent advantage.
We were deciphering the codes of them e they did not know, therefore we had an idea of what she went to happen.
We had the aircraft carriers there, in the place certain to confrot them.
Midway, one of the biggest battles naval of all the times, it implied the recovery of the control naval of the Pacific for U.
e the end of the Japanese hope of new conquests.
The four Japanese aircraft carriers that they had launched the attack the Pearl Harbor, six months before, had been destroyed for the American aircraft carriers that, for being in the sea, they had escaped to the destruction in this day.
The Battle of Midway it condemned Japan.
The Battle of Midway was the point of turn in the War of the Pacific, of our complete withdrawal for the attempt to establish, at least, the equality, it stops later passing to the offensive one.
It was the turn point not only in the sea, but also in land.
Guadalcanal, one of llhas Salomão, it was the conquest more to the south of Japan.
In August of 1942, the Allies had come back.
For the Americans, it was the first invasion of the war.
We possessed a minimum fraction of the force and the money of America, of the resources and the staff military.
90% had been for the Europe.
Our existence was extremely precarious back in the south.
She was our first offensive one in Pacific and alone we had a division.
The Japanese were combatant hand-vises and never gave up.
we isolate a Japanese regiment in one position especially strenghtened e they had fought until being debtors to verwhelm them.
We after use loudspeakers to surround them, e we try persuadiz to surrender them it, but they did not want to make it.
The Japanese did not have to have itself in such a way valiant in Guadalcanal.
They could have saved its forces.
Finally, the tide favored the Allies in the Pacific, but its importance still she was mere secondary.
The main energies they were reserved for the Europe.
It was a little strange stops the Americans and the public in general that we expended so little effort in the Pacific.
President Roosevelt he decides thus.
To defeat Hitler was of far most important, he was with priority.
He was most dangerous of the enemies e knew to keep American public opinion come back toward the Europe, although we had an operation crucial occurring in Japan, a very successful operation after to recoup of a tremendous shock, when we lose substantial part of our Navy in Pearl Harbor.
I think that the public opinion felt, if one may use the expression in basebol, that the decisive game it was in the Europe and the United kingdom.
I include it in the Europe occidental person.
Early it was decided that Europe was with priority.
E was a sensible decision, although terms been defeated in the Pacific for much time.
It was the certain decision e I believe that they had recognized it to all.
It is clearly that the Navy protested for having been under pressure in the Pacific, what it displayed in them enormous losses and everything this, but I think that the country in general it agreed to our decision, that the true threat it was in the Europe.
We could deal with the Japanese in the hour that we chose, but what we had that to confrot it was in the Continental Europe.
That is the army, Mr.
Jones It does not have private rooms Nor telephones It took the coffee of the morning in the bed But it will not be here thus Here, we teach to kill: to shoot the enemy in the soil more fast possible e to take off it to it life with the two feet, a foot, part of the hand, one I beat in the nape of the neck, to pull out to it the eyes, to tear it to it mouth.
The fine art to kill a man is pô it in the soil and to kick it thus.
We go, make the same.
It makes what the buglers to order It is in the army and not in a band That is the army, Mr.
Brown It was with loved its to the city It worried it, But the war is thus E it will not worry it more Mr.
Jones, Mr.
Green Mr.
Churchill antipatizava deeply, I believe, with the idea of that the one that called one has disembarked premature in the Continental Europe.
It had memories lived of sacrifice of a British generation in the World War I, in Passchendale and the Somme.
They had been always nightmares for it.
After all, this ardor it results of Pearl Harbor e to be in war, marching, ountermarching and training.
We had to disembark in some side.
Before the British attitude, that in it did not find them prepared stops to enter in the theater of main war, we look another place to state our force, that was Africa.
There far There far They order acknowledgment, order acknowledgment There far That the Yankees are the way The Yankees are the way The tambores rufam everywhere Therefore they are prepared They pray They order acknowledgment They order an acknowledgment of caution We go to arrive We go the way E alone we will come back When everything to finish E alone we will come back When everything to finish November of 1942:600 ships full of men and equipment they leave northward of Africa, in the Operation Torch.
When hearing the notice, Roosevelt it said:"Finally, we are the way.