The World at War s01e25 Episode Script

Reckoning (1945...and after)

The bombings had stopped, the fires, dead people.
The Europe was in ruins.
The deceased had disappeared forever e the livings creature continued its life.
For all side, the scene was the same.
Not it had gas, nor water, nor telephone, nor electricity.
It was time to make accounts, it was time to start of new.
The World in War Serrlement of accounts Spring of 1945.
The War had finished in the central Europe, the end of the Reich of a thousand years.
Confused, dirty, an age without mercy, an age of brutality, of breaking, revenge.
The Germans had come back of the countries of the East that had tried to conquer, where some had lived during generations.
They had been bad heads e now paid the price.
But at least they are livings creature.
The last hours of the Wehrmacht, an army becoming fluid itself.
They had made the war against world, now saved what they can.
I find that the German troops that they surrendered they were alliviated.
Most was contented with the surrender.
They preferred to arrive at the front American to be surrendered to surrender it the Russian front that advanced.
It was a defeated army, but exactly in the end, nor always dominated.
The old habits are difficult to break, but finally the spilling of blood it was almost in the end.
It had a civil war in the Europe, it started in 1914.
During this war, it had a long armistice.
It only finished in 1945.
While the Europe crossed this final process, the Americans and the Russians they enter in this territory.
They meet in Torgau, in the river the Elba, May of 1945.
In the end, it was not a nation European who gained the war.
The winners of the civil war European, is foreign, they are Russians e mainly the Americans.
Soon, the control of the continent it was at the hands of three strangers, since the English only they had contributed with 25% of the total of the Anglo-American force of Eisenhower.
Therefore, England, America e Russia controls the continent e goes to decide which will be its destination.
Nor the Russians nor the Americans they wanted this war.
Now, comrades of weapons, they had obtained a great victory.
When its generals if to find they can talk in the language of combat, of the tanks and the weapons.
But they will have something in common beyond of colloquy of soldiers? The Russians were in clouds, us also.
It had hand squeezes, tapinhas in the coasts e exchange of souvenirs.
I had a Russian clock and alliance of marriage of somebody.
I lost my clock, I lost all the insignias of the uniform.
The Russians were very friendly.
Many did not say to English and others they had a wonderful English.
They had studied in Oxford or in Cambridge.
I remember that to speech with one of them I thought: "I will never forget myself its face.
If it will have another war, I will never forget to it.
" It was very new and was very likeable, but we were always feeling that they hated in them, what I find that was truth.
During the war, America was led to believe, for the propaganda, that Russia was a democracy, a freedom land, that it partilhava the objectives social of the Ocidente.
It made direction, since they had fought against the Nazistas as us.
It seemed that we had very in common.
Commission agents, the President of the United States of America.
San Francisco, April of 1945.
One month before the capitulation of Germany.
The Organization of United Nations is born.
The Letter of United Nations that they are signing now, it is a solid structure on which we will be able to construct a better world.
The world waited that this happened, that this was the last war.
That the victorious people would go to obtain to cooperate in the peace as in the war.
That the four policies, as Roosevelt liked to mention itself to England, France, The Ussr and United States, for times, they were five, counting on China, they went to watch over so that it did not have more aggressions in the world.
It went to show that the war it had meant something e had not been only a war against nazism.
It has one hour to plan e has one hour to act.
The hour arrived to act.
Nation for nation, all the commission agents if raise for the new Letter that all had written.
all in favor of the peace.
Now, the final signature of the Letter.
China is the first one to sign, since it was the first nation to be attacked in this war.
The signature of the Dr.
Wellinghton Koo heads the long list.
Later, on behalf of Russia, Gromyko ambassador it compromises its country to respect the agreements and objectives determined after days and nights of commitment and cooperation.
Four main pillars on which the world it deposits its hope.
It went to emerge a better world e wanted that it was a world without colonies.
A self-determination world.
This age a feeling very deep in 1945, exactly between the world-wide leaders more cynical.
I imagine that until felt it to Stalin, I have the certainty of that Harry felt it to Truman, as well as Winston Churchill.
It was a feeling that until the people it partilhava.
Germany continued to be, exactly after defeated, the seed of the discord in all the Europe.
It starts the war, soon, its leaders they would have of being punished.
The proper Germans had of to pay the suffering that they had caused.
But they cannot pay, if Germany to remain in ruins.
Or if the country will be desmembrado, as some defended.
Nobody wanted that Germany it came back to recoup the force, but also they did not want to face the consequências to keep it in ruins forever.
The reply:military control.
Four armies will supervise the recovery of Germany.
The intent generals will reconstruct it to allies, but to only come back the recompor what it destroyed.
Germany can be remained joined, but never more it will be able to have resources to threaten the peace.
July of 1945.
The military administration is ece of fish in march.
The American troops had occupied Leipzig, a city well inside of zone of Russian occupation.
Now, the Americans withdraw, for the Ocidente, for the other edge of the river the Elba.
The Russians advance.
The Germans, tired, intent, smiling nervously, they see its conquerors Russians for the first time.
After the combats, the armies they had been in this disposal.
However, the occupation zones already they had been determined, in the Conference of Yalta.
It would have four zones.
The Russian zone had the food e the raw materials, The occidental zones: the American, English and Frenchman, they had the industry.
So that the occupation resulted as intended, it would have to have exchanges between them.
Berlin was changedded into the Advice of Control of the Allies, a test zone stops that the plan functioned.
It had some doubt if not.
.
if we do not precipitate in them in the organization of the zones, until seeing as armies if would leave.
E has tests that indicates, that our leaders they subestimaram the force of Anglo-American army that it invaded the Europe, because when we occupy the zones, we yield the Saxonia and the Turíngia, but on the other hand we compensate with one it has broken of Austria occidental person that she had been busy for the Soviets.
He is obvious that the Russians had left that the Ocidente entered in Berlin, that km inside of its zone was the 130.
They were not obliged to make it, they could have acted in Berlin, as they had acted in the Poland, They could have said:"Nor they think, we do not go to leave to enter, we do not go to respect the agreements of Yalta and we go to be with Berlin.
After all, we are we capture that it e we pay the price, Berlin, July of 1945.
The three powers meet for the Conference of Potsdam.
The first meeting of the victorious people it has a full agenda.
However, for the Ocidente, one asks reigns: What it wants Stalin? In our first meeting, Stalin advanced immediately with the requirements that the Russians had kept during all the Conference.
It wanted, basically, to assure the security of its country, independently of the interests of its neighbors.
During the war, I passed much time with it e one day said to it:"Marshal, must to be a great joy, after all the provações e of the tragedies why it passed, to be here in Berlin.
" It looked at for me and said: "The Czar Alexander arrived Paris.
" The Conference does not bring new decisions in relation to the Europe, but it confirms what it had been determined in Yalta 6 months before.
The newness is the disposal.
Although the smiles for the cameras, occidental leaders e Stalin is not understood.
The sensation, over all for the United States e for President Truman it was of that Stalin was another Hitler.
They had not thought that they had supported the side missed during the war.
They had the certainty of that Hitler had been the great threat, of that Hitler had of being jammed e of that the Army stops this Red is basic.
The Red Army had They were trunfo of Stalin, the source of its force to the table of the Conference.
Suddenly, the Americans they had started to desmobilizar itself.
By the way, in the Conference of Potsdam, they were if reorganizing, bringing the army it stops the United States so that later they advanced for Japan, because they waited the invasion of the islands before the last attack.
I was invited to congregate me with President Truman, It closed the doors and counted the biggest secret of the war.
The fact of that the Americans they had an atomic bomb e that went to play it soon e that would go to finish the war.
It said that took that decision, because it would go to save thousand of allied lives that they would be lost in one Japan has massacreed on the back of.
It informed to me that it could come to come across me with the Japanese surrender.
Later I spoke with Churchill, that it said the same thing to me.
It said:"They go to surrender e what the Admiral goes to make?" It said to it that not wise person, it finishes to receive the notice.
August of 1945.
The bomb is launched.
In fact, the Japanese surrender.
Its cities also are in ruins, the conquest dreams, torn into pieces.
Also they are at the mercy of of its conquerors.
Not yet they know what it is for coming.
The Americans wanted Japan reconstructed quickly, they wanted that a Japan was risen industrialized, well inserted in the American orbit.
Truman decided in Potsdam, that only the American troops they could enter in Japan.
The Australians had not entered, nor the English, much less the Russians.
The visit of the conqueror.
General Douglas MacArthur with its American council members, its American cut.
It will try to reconstruct Japan to the image of the United States.
The prisoners are freed.
American aviators who they had carbonized the Japanese cities.
Now they are that they order.
In the Europe still it is Summer.
It has 700 a thousand survivors of the concentration camps.
It can be the sufficient to be alive, to come back to see its, to have survived, to go for house.
Six million old slaves, Poles, Russians, Yugoslavs, estonios, Czechs, Frenchmen, free to retake its lives, now that its heads Germans had left.
Prisoners of war without native land, deportees, Germans, soldiers, deserters.
He was very complicated to distinguish a German refugee of a Pole, in the zone of Germany where I was.
I not wise person distinguiz them.
If they took things in the coasts e did not have a truck, almost with certainty that was refugee.
Or perhaps guards of the SS, with uniforms of stolen prisoners.
Some choose the death.
Himmler, leader of the SS, ingests poison.
Some surrender, or are apanhados.
Von Runstedt, General of Hitler, fardado.
Admiral Doenitz, the last one leader of the Third Reich, Albert Speer.
What to make with these dominated monsters? Stalin, in the Conference of Yalta, where they had been gifts Roosevelt and Churchill, it said that in its opinion it would have to catch 50 a thousand generals and officers German reuniz them and to execute them summarily.
It was not playing.
President Roosevelt found that it did not say the serious one and said: "Well, perhaps 49 a thousand.
" But Churchill said that she preferred to be led for the garden, e to be executed, to make part of this iniquidade.
However, the Russians they had insisted almost until the end of that it must not have judgments, they were criminal e had to be executed as soon as they were pegos.
It has a judgment for crimes of war, in Nuremberg, the city of Hitler.
The accusations:crimes against the peace, crimes against the humanity, desencadeamento of the war.
The guilty ones are all Germans.
Goering is called if to declare culprit or innocent.
Before pronouncing my declaration of culprit or innocent.
I inform the court, of that the guilty ones are not authorized.
to make declaration.
It must be declared guilty or innocent.
Innocent.
Rudolf Hess.
Not! It will have to consist as one plea of innocence.
I think that they were two objectives in one.
The first one was the repayment, they wanted to punish these people that they had provoked the war against the world.
Not only for the war, but also for the fact of that before and during the war, they had committed the crimes more hideous against the humanity, as it was the extermínio of seven million Jews.
As the reason of the judgment it was the hope of if establishing the laws of the international law, not only for if becoming illegal the desencadeamento of the war, but, for the first time, to make responsible personally the national leader had who them lead to the war.
women and children, had died thus, assassinated the cold blood.
Millions now cry its parents and mothers, the husbands, women and children.
I was very surprised for the appearance of the guilty ones.
I thought: "It had seen If them in the bus, they would pass unfurnished.
" I find that this if applied to all, less the Hess and the Ribbentrop that they were very taciturnos e Goering that had one personality notable.
It dominated the court, it was the personality that if detached.
To the times, in elapsing of one long judgment, as that one that it lasted 200 days more than, something ran badly.
A question to the witness became to the wait to hear one "yes" e the witness answered "not".
In these heights, we could not to find the look of Goering.
It was seated in one sings, in the first line, e if we looked at for it during an incident of these, it raised sobrancelha e abanava the head of well made use form e was very difficult not to also smile to it.
Goering runs away from the arrest with cianeto.
The others are hanged, imprisoned, or freed.
They had brought its revolution to Germany e the death to the Europe.
Now that its adventure insane person had finished, they paid for the result of the Reich de Hitler.
The English had come back to Asia in triumph.
An empty victory.
India already is not docile.
Two million its soldiers they had fought in the war of England, now they want that its country also either freed.
The African troops of Its Majesty also they want the freedom.
Malaysia, Birmânia.
England is weak stops to fight for them, exactly that it wants.
The resulted greater of the war against Japan in the Extreme East, it was the ascension of the feeling nationalism in Asia.
It is clearly that a great part of Asia it was under English yoke or then under dutch yoke or of another European people e the people started to desire the creation of its proper ones institutions politics.
The Japanese demonstration of that it was possible to win the English, of that it was possible to jam them, it encouraged them, in the perspective of the peoples southeastern Asian, also they could impose its position face to the English.
It had a great effect in India e for all the Asian Southeast.
Suddenly, as Commander Supreme, I saw me responsible for an enormous area of the globe, with 9 a thousand kilometers of diameter, in the distance between London and Bombay, with 128 million people with hunger and rebels that they had finished to be freed, many of which they were dying e I had to try to recoup them.
At the beginning, it had about 700 a thousand.
soldiers, sailors e Japanese aviators to accept the surrender, to disarm e to put in fields of prisoners, while they waited to be deported.
It seems a great problem, but not it made idea of it waited what me.
In the truth, it waited what me it was the reestablishment of civilization, of the law and the order, in this vast zone of the globe.
Nor we knew that conditions we would go to have.
Not it had qualified staff, nor formed to help me, taking off the linking officers of some countries in question that they wanted to come back and to retake what they had left has 3 years.
The Policy also was not the ideal.
The indonésios do not want the dutches in return.
If the order must be kept in Eastern India, it only has a force that can make it, the Japanese Army.
Mountbatten puts them in action in Indonesia and Singapura.
It can seem strange now, after the war, but what I could make? If it said to them to release the weapons, to be concentrated in fields of prisoners e to leave the exterior world without policing, this is that he would be strange.
I find that they had to continue as they were, until being officially excused.
Not them empreguei, they had continued until being able to excuse them for the soldiers allies.
The Americans are in Japan to be.
For almost all Asia, occidental people prepare themselves to leave.
Reluctantly, the dutches they go, but the Frenchmen, not.
They do not abdicate of the Indochina.
They send troops for recoups it, commanded for General Le Clerc, a hero of the European war.
In my last colloquy with general Le Clerc, when it was you give to deliver the military responsibility for the south of the French Indochina, I asked for to try to understand itself to it with the inhabitants and rebels.
It said to it that France alone could come back with a friendly relation.
It is not possible to impose the law colonial for half military.
It said:"I understand what me it says, but moan, I am a soldier e I received instructions stops it dominates them militarily.
" E was this that it made.
Therefore, the slaughter continues e continues until today.
Berlin, in the first months of occupation.
Fräuleins glad, before was created of the New Order of Hitler.
Some of the victorious people they are had fun as never.
Germany of the postwar period it had a economy of cigarettes and chocolate, therefore, it had little thing that a soldier could not buy, including services of all the sorts.
It is the same of always enters a youngster and a young woman.
If they want to be together, does not have law none hinders that them.
The black market was blossoming.
We did not have nothing and a bar of soap she was precious.
A person almost that if prostituía to arrange soap, a can of coffee or even though for cigarettes.
This for who smoked, that case was not mine.
The people made everything.
I know people decent that they would be capable of everything.
We lose some of our dignity human being when we have as much hunger, when food is not had, nor clothes, nor nothing.
How if can criticize a young woman with hunger? It can not want stockings, nor cigarettes, nor bicycles, nor butter, but it had any thing that it wanted very, that it could be supplied for the American or English soldier.
I had to give up to smoke in the street.
At that time I smoked, e without care played the tip is.
It had people that almost they apanhavam it in air, therefore they came in following for I to be smoking.
I remember that in one of the cinemas, I find that it was.
It does not interest, was in one of the great cities, where it went to have an performance for the American soldiers.
They had made a line in the door before the beginning.
The Americans could not smoke in the cinemas, but they smoked in the line.
Almost to the side of each smoker, it had a line of men anxious for the tobacco.
They were to the wait of the tips that they went to the soil as soon as the doors opened, they ran to apanharem them.
In that line, the local key it was the door of the cinema, because she was that most there of them it released the tips.
In retrospect, the paper of conqueror seems me dúbio, but, at the time, we were vain of our virtue e of the German immorality.
It was very pleasant to be able to give orders to them.
It was time to reconstruct, time of Germany to start the recompor to be able to pay.
The Russians wanted 20 a thousand million of dollar of indemnity, the Americans find that this is more than the valley Germany.
The Ocidente does not go to help the Russians to receive such amount.
They had stopped to send good e equipment for the East.
The Russians send little food e raw materials for the Ocidente.
The Allies start to have certain attritions between them.
The Germans, apanhados in the way, they continue the reconstruction, alone.
Now already it does not have enslaved man power.
They had set free the streets and trams already could pass.
It did not like nothing to have of walking in one, they were you give to break, it had hung people of the windows although the cold, people in foot in the buses, e had lines of people to enter, but never it had nobody to leave.
The Suchdienst, the Register of Disappeared People.
of the East they tried to meet.
They were not alone.
they had lost its roots, some had never more obtained to come back.
November of 1945.
The Germans live with 1500 calories per day, one terço from what they receive the American troops.
It was a difficult time very, because we pass much hunger.
As the Americans had much food, my mother decided to work for them I also decided.
to work for them.
My mother was in the kitchen e I served the table.
For me it was very difficult because the Americans.
they always walked asking for that I I smiled, but it could not smile, because the American officers.
they were very proud e treated them as nazistas.
It did not have no Conference of Peace.
It does not have a new Versailles.
Germany is divided, zones busy borders become, not intentional, badly received and permanent.
If we had Germany joined that it was of the Russians, we would have the Russian domain on all the continent.
If we had Germany at the hands of the Anglo-Americans, we would have a domain occidental person of the continent, that it would go to steal of Russia its jousts requirements for the security, that it was the first concern of Stalin, during the war and later.
Therefore, the division of Germany for the river the Elba, it was perhaps the best solution.
We are attemped to use the word "just", but I find that they do not apply in this case.
It is the exequível solution.
Where it wants that the Red Army it was, in the contiguous territory, they installed a Soviet system e did not have quarrel.
We made optimum that we could with the Poland.
It is clearly that the tragedy of the Poland it is to have border with Germany of a side and with the Russia of the other.
It is a terrible situation, but this it is the quandary and the Polish tragedy.
The Poland has to follow one or the other.
Given to the possibilities and the nature of Hitler and Stalin, if I was Polish, it preferred to be underneath of the yoke of Stalin of what of Hitler.
Polish soldiers, desire a trip in return soon and insurance to its native country.
The tragedy of the Poland, the triumph of Russia.
Day of the victory in Moscow.
It is clearly that the Russians had paid a great price for the victory, but they had also earned with the war.
Over all security and control of the East of the Europe, beyond the chance of to explore it economically.
A nation exaurida for the war it had to arrange form of if reconstructing.
The Soviet Union had survived.
She is one of the great world-wide powers e now recognizes it to all as such.
London, 1945.
Eros comes back toward house.
England also had survived, but it are a curious victory.
Already they can make picnics, but well-taken care of with the mines.
Not it had invasion, nor occupation, but the treasure of the nation was depleted.
During six years it fought and it was a war workshop.
The bullets had been bought with the English wealth.
Now already they are not necessary.
England gained the war, but it was almost in the bankruptcy.
England had as many problems in if recouping of the victory, as Germany had to if recouping of the defeat.
What Great-Britain earned with the war? Little.
It lost very.
In a positive perspective, it gained a right moral on the world, as the nation that if imposed alone during one year against Hitler e supplied the moral leadership against the nazistas, at a time where all they wanted to deliver itself.
United States, 1945.
The youngsters had come back.
another time.
The great winners of World War II they had been without a doubt the United States.
We earn much more with the war of what the others.
It has an interesting paradox.
Shortly after the victory, Americans had started to think: "We come back to be been deceptive, such as in world to war i.
We made this so great effort, we defeat the Germans, we defeat the Japanese e who is that it earns? The Russians.
They are with the East of the Europe.
We were ones trouxas.
" It was the general feeling in the United States, what he is strange, when we see, with the possible objetividade, the results of the war.
The Americans had come back toward a country where he did not have bombings, a country with the double of the wealth that it had at the beginning of the war.
With more food of what it could consume, more clothes of what it could dress, more steel of what it could use.
The only country in the world with surplus money.
The country with the atomic bomb.
The Germans also are victorious, although not yet knowing.
The soldiers had come back of the fields of prisoners, they had dressed clothes civil and they had come back to the work.
Prussiana, feudal Germany demanding e already does not exist.
In its place, it is born the structure of a new place.
Ironically, this was workmanship of Hitler.
Now, in ocidente, it will be born new Germany.
Rich, it exempts, democratic and strong.
Also dumb England.
Although some voices if to keep equal.
They will be led for one deposit of civil clothes to arrange a tender civilian.
After this, they will be led for the train station e later is free to come back toward house.
The procedure is understandable, because it has much thing to make when it is left the army.
The civil life is full of traps e the former-soldier has that to be armed against them, when it marches, finally, for the streets as civil.
The English soldiers come back toward house, for a land without great joy, for a coupon land of rationing, lines, black market and austerity.
However, for a land with Service of Health e for a state-providence.
For a land of men e free women, for a world that already is not in war.
First, if we did not have looser the war, it would mean that the Germans e the Japanese, would have looser.
The type of world can imagine where we would live.
It is truth that.
the problem of Russia, by the way of the Soviet Union, it emerged drastically after the war.
But, in the generality, it was the lesser evil having in account what it could have happened.
E the principles on which the democracies operate, on which if they base the societies, they had not been very satisfied with the result of the war, but I think that this inevitable age given the Soviet system.
On the other hand, it has one great portion of the world, that it can exert one certain level of freedom, over all in its internal administration.
I do not want to say that what is not Communist is perfect, far from this, but the world would be intolerable under Nazista domain and Japanese.
The main consequências of the war on the people and systems politicians, they had happened in the countries of the East of the Europe, over all the Poland, Tchecoslováquia, Hungria, Romenia e these countries.
They waited, or at least most of them waited, that it freed them to the war of the nazista threat e, in the end, had been added to the communist block, that he was less left-hand side of what the nazista block.
This was a great exploit of World War II.
A less left-hand side tyranny, it substituted a left-hand side tyranny very.
But the freedom was not this that they yearned for e for which we fight.
The resulted greater of the War it was the destruction of the Nazistas, of the militaristas in Japan e of the fascists in Italy.
Justice never was so well made.
It has thirty years, that the born in the kingdom peace in the Europe.